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CONSEIL PEEMANENT INTERNATIONAL POUR ^ 

L'EXPLORATION DE LA MER ' ^< 



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Kt^À 




RAPPORTS 

ET 

PROCÈS-VERBAUX DES REUNIONS 

VOLUME XXVI 
PROCÈS-VERBAUX i'^ 

(1918-19 & 1919-20) 



EN COMMISSION CHEZ 
ANDR. FRED. H0ST & FILS 

COPENHAGUE 

Juillet 1920 






500 '^/Vll 1920 



COPENHAGUE - IMPRIMERIE BIANCO LUNO 



TABLE DES MATIÉEES X^/;^^-^:^' 

A. EAPPOET ADMINISTRATIF (AVEC ANNEXES) 

Rapport administratif sur la dix-septième et la dix-huitième année: 22 juUIet *^ 

1918 au 21 juiUet 1920 I— III 

B. PROCÈS- VERBAUX DES RÉUNIONS DU CONSEIL 

Treizième réunion, Londres, Mars 1920 

Bureau, tableau des membres etc 3 — 5 

Ordre du jour de la réunion 6 

Procès-verbal de la séance du 2 mars 7 — 18 

— - - — - 6 — 18-27 

C. RÉSOLUTIONS DU CONSEIL DE LA SÉANCE À LONDRES, MARS 1920 28-43 
D BUDGET DU CONSEIL POUR 1919—20 44-47 

E. BUDGET DU CONSEIL POUR 1920—21 48 

F. PROCÈS-VERBAUX DES SECTIONS ETC. 

I — III Procès- Verbal des sections hydrographique et planktonique 49 — 58 

IV Procès- Verbal de la section des pêcheries et des statistiques 58 

V Procès- Verbal de la commission des plies 59 

VI — - - — — harengs 60—61 

VII — - - — — saumons 62 

VIII . — - - — — pêcheries du sud-ouest 63 

IX — - - ■ — — limnologique 64 

X — • - - — — commission des statistiques ... 64 

G. ANNEXES 

Annexe I au Rapport de la séance commune des sections hydrographique 

et planktonique 64—66 

-^ II Mémoire hydrographique 66 — 71 

— III à la section planktonique 71 — 73 

— IV à la commission des plies 73 — 77 

, — V - - — - harengs 77 — 79 

— VI - - — - — 79—81 

— VII Rapport sur les investigations de l'anguille 81 — 82 

— VIII — sur "an International size-limit etc. for the Plaice in 

the North Sea, the Skagerak, and the Kattegat" : 82 — 87 

— IX Résumé concernant la question de la plie 88 — 89 

— X Rapport de la commission des publications 90 — 92 



31264 




RAPPOßT ADMINISTRATIF 



BUREAU OF THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL 
FOR THE STUDY OF THE SEA 



Report of Administration 

1918-19 & 1919-20. 



Composition of In the year 1918 — 19 no change took place in the composition of the 

the International International Council. 

^'"""^ In 1919 — 20, at the meeting in London of the International Council from 

March 2nd to March 6th, the following countries were represented: Belgium, Den- 
mark, Finland, France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden. 
Administrative The usual work has been carried out by the Bureau and the *vork in rela- 

Report tion to the resolutions of the Council has, as far as possible, been continued in all 
participating countries during 1918 — 19 and 1919 — 20. This refers in particular 
to herring, salmon and eel investigations and to investigations as to how the stock 
of certain food fishes (plaice and haddock) in the North Sea has altered since 
the outbreak of the war. This work is going to be carried on in Great Britain on 
a large scale in 1919 — -20. 

Several publications have been issued as to the result of former and recent 
investigations (see p. 90). 

Report of work carried out by the Departments of the Bureau 

during the years 1918— I'J and 1919—20. 

Hydrographical Department. 

Care was taken of the printing of the "Bulletin Atlantique" which was 
published in the spring of 1919. 

A working up of the material of decade surface temperatures in the North 
Sea published in the Hydrographical Bulletin since 1905 has been commenced 
(Knudsen) and the preliminary results laid before the meeting in London 1920. 

A working up of the surface salinity material collected by liners in the North 
Atlantic and published in the Hydrographical Bulletin since 1905 has been com- 
menced (Gehrke). 



II ADMINISTRATION-REPORT 1918—1920 

A paper on the influence of cold winters upon the salt bottom-water of 
the Kattegat is under preparation (Gehrke). An abstract was laid before the 
meeting in London 1920. 

Attention was paid to the distribution of standard water and the testing and 
distribution of instruments as in previous years. Experiments on a new method 
for the determination of light-absorption in sea-water were carried out, and for 
the consideration of the Bureau a Memorandum on the Hydrographical Depart- 
ment of the Bureau and the Laboratoire Hydrographique was prepared. 

Plankton Department. 

1. The head of the Department has continued the elaboration of the mate- 
rial for the concluding "General Part" of the Résumé planktonique. 

The extracts of the different special reports are now finished and their 
arrangement into general groups is nearly fulfilled, but the final writing of the 
manuscript is not yet ready. At present an Introduction is ready for print, and 
the general Alphabetical Index to the three already published special parts has 
been arranged. It is expected that the whole manuscript will be finished in 
course of the present year. 

2. The Department has finished the printing of the paper by H. H. Gran 
and Thorbjorn Gaarder: "Über den Einfluss der atmosphärischen Veränderungen 
Nordeuropas auf die hydrographischen Verhältnisse des Kristianiafjords bei Drö- 
bak im März 1916", which appeared in August 1918 as "Publication de Circon- 
stance" No. 71. 

Biological Department. 

As mentioned in the report of work carried out by the Biological Depart- 
ment for the years 1916 — 18, the statistics for the year 1913 were sent to Professor 
D'Arcy Thompson for perusal. The statistics were returned to the Department 
in the spring 1919 with Professor D'Arcy Thompson's "Introduction" and have 
been published and distributed. It is expected that the statistics for the year 1914 
will be edited before the end of the present year ; it has taken a very long time 
to collect the material for these statistics. The work on the statistics for th,e year 

1915 has been started and is nearly finished, only waiting for some material. For 

1916 several of the participating countries have not yet the material worked 
out. For certain countries, like Russia and Belgium, we have received no stati- 
stics since 1912. 

For 1918 — 19 the usual contributions have been paid by Denmark, Great Contributions 
Britain, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. Statement of 

From the Statement of Accounts for the financial year 1918 — 19 (see below) 
it will be seen that the balance at the end of the year was Kr. 61137.66. 



Accounts 



ADMINISTRATION-REPORT 1918—1920 III 

Statement of Accounts for the financial year 1918- — 19. 

Receipts: 

Estimates tj^Î^J;.. 
Receipts 

I. 1. Balance brought forward from 1917/18—1918/19 Kr. sssig.oo 52306.841) 
II. 2-6. Annual contributions of the governments con- 
cerned - 40925.00 40466.94 

III. 7. Interest - o.oo 1540.89 

IV. 8. Sale of publications. - o.oo 95.67 

Total... Kr. 79444.00 94410.34 

Expenditure : 

Estimates p^if- 

I. 1-3. Salaries Kr. 5960.00 5960.00 

II. 4-6. Assistance - 7220.00 6860.00 

III. 7-10. Incidental Expenses - 5000.00 8000.00 

IV. 11. Travelling Expenses - isoo.oo 545.60 

V. 18-18. Expenses of the Office in Copenhagen - 6170.00 5772.44 

VI. 19. Minor Expenses of Meetings - 0.00 0.00 

VII. S0-2S. Printing - losoo.oo 6134.64 

Total... Kr. 36350.00 33272.68 

Receipts for the financial year 1918—19 Kr. 94410.34 

Expenditure - - — - — - 33272.68 

Cash balance to carry forward to 1919/20 Kr. 61137.66 ') 



+ Russia's contribution 1914/15, Rbl. 14430.54, deposited in a Petrograd bank. 



Revision of -phc accounts for 1918 — 19 have been revised by the Financial Committee 

accounts ^^^ found correct. At the meeting of the Council in March 1920 the Statements 
of accounts for the years 1912- — 1919 were finally approved by the Council. 



B 
PROCÈS-VEEBAIJX 

DE LA TEEIZIÈME RÉUNION DU CONSEIL 



CONSEIL — MARS 1920 



TREIZIEME REUNION 

LONDRES — MARS — 1920 




BUREAU DU CONSEIL 

Avant la réunion: M. Otto Pettersson, Président du Conseil. 

M. H. G. Maurice, Vice-Président du Conseil. 
M. C. F. Drechsel, Secrétaire-Général du Conseil. 

Après la réunion: M. H. G. Maurice, Président du Conseil. 

M. Otto Pettersson, Vice-Président du Conseil. 

M. J. Hjort, Vice-Président du Conseil. 

M. F. Kerzoncuf, Vice-Président du Conseil. 

M. C. F. Drechsel, Secrétaire-Général du Conseil. 



MEMBRES DU CONSEIL ET EXPERTS 

et leurs adresses 

Belgique: M. G. GiLSON, Professeur, Directeur du Musée Royal d'histoire 

naturelle de Belgique, Bruxelles. 
M. A. Hamman, Président du Comité de Mariculture, Membre du 
Parlement Belge, Rue longue 60, Ostende. 

Danemark: M. le Commandeur C. F. Drechsel, Copenhague, Jens Kofodsgade 2. 
M. Martin Knudsen, Professeur à l'Université, Copenhague, Jens 

Kofodsgade 2. 
Experts: M. le Dr. A. C. Johansen, Jens Kofodsgade 2, Copen- 
hague. 
M. le Professeur C. H. Ostenfeld, Sortedamsdossering 
63 A, Copenhague. 
Finlande: M. le Dr. R. Witting, Professeur, Directeur de l'institut finlandais 

pour l'exploration de la Mer (ou Directeur de "Merentutkimus- 
laitos"), Helsingfors. 
M. le Dr. T. H. Järvi, Directeur des Pêcheries (ou Directeur de 
"Kalastushallitus"), Helsingfors. 



CONSEIL - MARS 1920 — 4 — 

France: M. F. Kerzoncuf, Directeur des Pêches Maritimes, 5, rue Castiglione, 

Paris. 
M. Théodore Tissier, Président de Section au Conseil d'État, 
Président du Conseil de l'Office des Pêches Maritimes, 13, rue 
Monsieur, Paris. 
Experts: M. Behal, Professeur à l'École Supérieure de Phar- 
macie, 4, Avenue de l'observatoire, Paris. 
M. JouBiN, Professeur au Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, 

21, rue de l'Odéon, Paris. 
M. Le Danois, Docteur, Secrétaire, 38'"', rue Voltaire, 
St. Germain en Laye, Seine et Oise. 

Grande Bretagne (et Irlande): Mr. H. G. Maurice, C. B., Fisheries Secretary, 43, 
Parliament Street, London. 
Professor, D'Arcy W. Thompson, C. B., F. R. S., The University, 

St. Andrews. 
Experts: Mr. D. T. Jones, C. B. E., Chairman of the Fishery 
Board for Scotland, Edinburgh. 

Dr. E. W. L. Holt, Chief Inspector of Fisheries of 
Ireland, Department of Agriculture, and Technical 
Instruction, 8, Kildare Place, Dublin. 

Professor J. Stanley Gardiner, F. R. S., Director of 
Fishery Investigations, 48, Parliament Street, London. 

Dr. Wemyss Fulton, Scientific Superintendent of the 
Fishery Board for Scotland, Aberdeen. 

Dr. E. J. Allen, F. R. S., Director of Marine Labora- 
tory, Plymouth. 

Dr. J. Johnstone, The University, Liverpool. 

Mr. J. 0. Borley, 0. B. E., 43, Parhament Street, 
London. 

Dr. E. C. Jee, 43, Parliament Street, London. 

Dr. E. S. Russell, 43, Parliament Street, London. 

Mr. Buchanan Wollaston, 43, Parliament Street, 
London. 

Mr. A. E. Hefford, 43, Parliament Street, London. 

Mr. C. Green, Inspector of Fisheries of Ireland, 3, Kil- 
dare Place, Dublin. 

Mr. G. P. Farran, Inspector of Fisheries of Ireland, 
3, Kildare Place, Dublin. 

Mr. Southern, Inspector of Fisheries of Ireland, 
3, Kildare Place, Dublin. 



— 5 — CONSEIL — MARS 1920 

Norvège: M. le Dr. Johan Hjort. (p. t. London). 

M. le Professeur H. H. Gran, à l'Université, Christiania. 
Experts: M. Einar Lea, Bureau of Fisheries, Research Branch, 
Bergen. 
M. Oscar Sund, Bureau of Fisheries, Research Branch, 
Bergen. 

Pays-Bas: M. le Dr. E. van Everdingen, Professeur à l'Université, Directeur- 
en-Chet de l'Institut Météorologique Royal, De Bilt. 
M. le Dr. H. C. Redeke, Directeur du "Rijksinstituut voor Biolo- 
gisch Visscherijonderzoek", Helder. ■ 

M. J. M. BoTTEMANKE, Inspecteur Général des Pêches, 
's Gravenhage, attended the Meeting officially. ■ 

Suède: M. le Dr. 0. Pettersson, Professeur, Holma, Lysekil. 

M. le Dr. Gustaf Ekman, Södra Hamargatan 11, Geteborg. 
Experts: M. le Dr. K. A. Andersson, Directeur du Bureau 
des Pêcheries, Kungl. Landtbruksstyrelsen, Stockholm. 
M. le Dr. H. Pettersson, Docent, Göteborg. 
M. le Dr. N. Rosén, Inspecteur des Pêcheries, Lysekil. 



États-Unis: M. Lincoln Hutchinson, Attaché à l'Ambassade des États-Unis 
d'Amérique à Londres, a assisté aux séances du Conseil. 



CONSEIL — MARS 1920 — 6 — 



AGENDA 



1. Opening of the Proceedings, Administrative Report, Formation of Sections. 

2. Final approval of the accounts for 1912 — 13 (vide Rapp. & Proc. Verb. Vol. 
XIX),1913— 14(Vol.XXI), 1914— 15 (Vol. XXIV), 1915—16 (Vol. XXIV), 
1916—17 (Vol. XXV), 1917—18 (Vol. XXV). Statement of Accounts for 1918 
— 19. Nomination of the Members of a Finance Committee. 

3. Settlement of the Estimates for the financial year 1919—20 and 1920—21. 
— Proposition regarding expenses of printing, language of Reports etc. 

4. International Study of the Sea after July 1919. 

a. The General Secretary: Report as to the present participation and 
the general situation. 

b. Measures to be taken for the future as to the continuation and organi- 
sation of the International Council and the participation of the Govern- 
ments. 

c. Nomination of the Members of the Bureau, the Assistants, the Finance 
and the Editorial Committee. 

5. The General Secretary: Work carried out during the war. 

6. Communication and deliberation regarding the Plaice question of the North 
Sea and the Baltic: Danish proposal as to the minimum measure for Plaice 
landed. 

7. The Herring and Salmon questions. 

8. Danish Atlantic Expedition for Sea Research. 

9. Mr. Maurice: Proposition regarding yearly Administrative Report, and state- 
ment of the work done in each country, and how far the Council's reso- 
lutions have been carried out. 

10. Report and proposals in regard to Sections: Programme for future work. 

11. Other business. 

12. Conclusion of the meeting. 



CONSEIL — MARS 1920 



REPORT 

of 

the 13th Meeting of the Council. 

First Sitting: Tuesday, March 2nd, 1920 at 11 a. m. 

The President, Prof. O. Pettersson, in the Chair. 
Present: the Members, Experts, etc. (list, p. 3). 



Under Point 1 of the Agenda (Opening of the Proceedings, Admini- 
strative Report, Formation of Sections), the President, Prof. 0. Petters- 
son, opened the sitting at 11 o'clock by saying: 

This meeting has been under preparation a long time, more than a year. 
We hoped at first to assemble the Council in March or April last year, then in Sep- 
tember or November. When at last the opening has been fixed for to-day, we are 
indebted for this happy solution of a difficult question to the initiative of the British 
Government and the energetic efforts of its Fishery Department and its able 
representative here, Mr. Maurice. 

Although our usual meeting-place is Copenhagen, it is by no means unusual 
to hold meetings in other countries-. Our first conferences were held in Stockholm 
and Christiania. Afterwards we met in Edinburgh, in Stralsund, Hamburg and 
Bremen, twice in Amsterdam. Our last meeting in London will be fresh in the 
memory of everyone who attended it. The Central Bureau, which has to decide 
the place of the meeting, after careful consideration found that we might easier 
convoke the representatives from the countries at the western side of the North 
Sea — England, Scotland, Belgium or France — if the Council this time assembled 
in London. 

Under these circumstances the Central Bureau resolved thankfully to accept 
the invitation to meet in London, and the more so because this invitation of the 
British Government involved the prospect of a future extension of the international 
co-operation to other countries with which we have long wished to co-operate. 
These expectations have been splendidly fulfilled to-day when we have the pleasure 
to see representatives from Finland and from France amongst us. 

The first acts of the Finnish Government after Finland had gained its 



COUNCIL — MARS l'J20 — 8 — 

indépendance and freedom was to reorganise on a broader and more liberal basis 
both the Board of Fisheries and the Thalassological Institute. 

Mina herrar kolleger frân Finland, ma det tillâtas mig, dâ jag framför ut- 
trycken af vâr beundran och sympati for denna patriotiska och vidsynta handling 
af Finlands folk och regering att tillfoga en lyckönskan frân edra stamförvandter 
i de skandinaviska länderna och närmast frân oss svenskar som delà med eder den 
ansvarsfulla uppgiften att undersöka Östersjön. Vi känna och värdera hvad I 
uträttat och hoppas pâ ett resultatrikt samarbete i framtiden. 
Messieurs les délégués de la France, 

Vous savez que les recherches de notre Conseil ne sont pas limitées à la mer 
du Nord et la mer Baltique. Maintenant, que nos expéditions fréquentent les mers 
septentrionales et vont visiter les parages de l'Islande et de Terre Neuve, ou les pê- 
cheurs Français depuis des siècles ont trouvé un terrain fertile pour leur pêche, terrain 
qui promet aussi des résultats importants pour l'investigation scientifique, nous éprou- 
vons un vif désir d'associer nos efforts à ceux des savants océanographes de votre 
pays pour entamer ensemble l'étude des grands problèmes de la circulation de l'océan, 
■ de la vie et des migrations des poissons. Maintenant, que le Gouvernement français 
a répondu favorablement à notre invitation, j'ai l'honneur au nom du Conseil 
International pour l'étude de la Mer de vous souhaiter la bienvenue. 

I think, gentlemen, that we have good reasons to expect a successful con- 
tinuation of the international research which we commenced 18 years ago. These 
future results must, however, be based on those formerly acquired. If we give a 
retrospective glance on that work we remember the excellent work of the Russian 
expeditions in the Murman Sea whereby Knipowitsch opened a new field of research 
to science and new and rich fields for the fishery industry of Europe. Nor will 
we forget the long and methodic exploration oJf the fish life in the Baltic and the 
North Sea by Heincke, Ehrenbaum, Reibisch a. o. 

As the oldest member of this Council, who have been with it from the be- 
ginning, I, for my part, look forward to the time when the international work can 
be resumed on its former extension. 

I have the honour to declare the 13th meeting of the International Council 
for the Study of the Sea opened and, following an old custom, I would propose in 
the first instance to send a telegram of homage to His Majesty the King of England. 
May I take this as granted? (Applause.) The following telegram was sent: 

A Sa Majesté Le Roi de la Grande Bretagne et d'Irlande. 
Les membres du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer réunis à Lon- 
dres en abordant pour la première fois après la guerre leurs travaux annuels demandent 
la permission de témoigner à Votre Majesté leurs sentiments les plus respectueux, 
Petteksson, Président. Fishery Department, 43, Parliament St. 



— 9 — COUNCIL — MARS 1920 

After this the General Secretary said: The countries participating in this 
meeting are represented by the same delegates as represented them at the last Coun- 
cil Meeting in 1913, except Finland for which country one of the Delegates, Dr. Järvi, 
Director of Fisheries, is partaking for the first time. We also for the first time have the 
pleasure of seeing French delegates here, France heing represented by the two Delega- 
tes: M. F. Kerzoncuf, Directeur des Pêches Maritimes, M. Théodore Tissier, Pré- 
sident deSection au Conseil d'État, and the Experts: M. Béhal, Professeur a l'École 
Supérieure de Pharmacie, Membre de l'Académie de Médecine, M. Joubin, Pro- 
fesseur au Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, and M. le Danois, Docteur, Secrétaire. 
Some British Experts also attend the Council Meeting for the first time: Mr. 
Stanley Gardiner, Mr. Wollaston, Mr. Farran, Mr. Russell, Mr. Southern, 
Mr. Hefford, Mr. Holt, Mr. Allen and Mr. Johnstone. From Holland we 
welcome M. Bottemanne, Chief Inspector of Fisheries; from Norway Dr. Sund, 
and from Sweden Docent Pettersson and Mr. Rosen, Inspector of Fisheries. 

I regret to record the death of Captain Ridderstad of Sweden, and also 
that of the former Biological Assistant at the Bureau, Dr. Reichard. 

Further the General Secretary reported: Although the investigations of the 
Sea and the work of the Council have been very much hampered during the war, 
and although it consequently has been of minor importance compared with the 
work of previous years, it touches, however, a series of different subjects, and as 
it embraces a large period of five years the task to report about it is somewhat 
difficult. 

I have thought to get over the difficulties hereby by referring to memoranda 
about the principal questions, as for instance the plaice question, the parti- 
cipation in the International Council of the various countries, and to the 
Rapports et Procès-Verbaux issued during the war, in particular that for 1913 — 1914, 
which gives the position regarding all matters dealt with by the Council at the out- 
break of the war. Moreover, delegates and experts present here are going to report 
about some special questions. This enables me now to report about the main feat- 
ures of the work during the war, the accounts, etc. 

Point 2 of the Agenda. (Final Approval of the Accounts for 1912 
— 13, 1913—14, 1914—15, 1915^16, 1916—17, 191.7—18. State- 
ment of Accounts for 1918^ — 19. Nomination of the Members of a 
Finance Committee.) 

In the first place I beg to lay before you: Statement of Accounts for the 
financial years since 1912 — 13, which is the last statement approved by the Council. 

As will be seen from the Procès-Verbaux issued during the war the accounts 
have since 1913 — 14 been audited by a Financial Committee and have been found 
correct. This Financial Committee could not be elected in the usual way, but the 

2 



COUNCIL — MARS 1920 — 10 — 

President, Professor Pettersson, Professor D'Arcy Thompson, Professor van 
EvERDiNGEN, Dr. Hjort, Professor Gran and Professor Martin Knudsen have 
been good enough to act as auditors during the whole war time. I think much credit 
is due to these gentlemen for the work done in this matter. 

With a letter of 5th January from the Bureau the draft Agenda for the present 
meeting was forwarded to the delegates, and the Agenda referred to the State- 
ments of Accounts contained in Rapports et Procès-Verbaux 1912 — 13 (Vol. XIX); 
1913-14 (Vol. XXI); 1914—15 and 1915—16 (Vol. XXIV); 1916—17 and 
1917—18 (Vol. XXV). 

I think it would take a very long time now to read all these statements, and 
in the above named letter they were therefore submitted to the delegates to examine 
before the meeting. Presuming that this has been done 1 now ask for your 
permission, Mr. President, to submit these statements to the final approval of the 
delegates. 

The said financial statements were then approved. 

The General Secreatary continued: The only statement now left for your 
final approval is the Statement of Accounts for the past financial year 1918 — 19 
The révisai of these accounts has been finished about a month ago, and Statements 
showing the balance have just now been distributed to the delegates. It is the 
Statement of greatest actual importance because it gives the cash balance at the 
end of the last financial year, viz. on the 21st of July, 1919. This statement of 
accounts (see page III) for the financial year 1918 — 19 was read and approved 
by the Council. 

The General Secretary next suggested that a Finance Committee be 
elected at this meeting for Audit of the Accounts for the present financial year 
1919 — 20, and proposed the following gentlemen: The President, Prof. D'Arcy 
Thompson, Prof. Gilson, Prof, van Everdingen and Dr. Järvi. This proposal 
was carried. 

Point 3 of the Agenda. (Settlement of the Estimates for the finan- 
cial year 1919^20. Proposition regarding expenses of printing, 
language of Reports etc.) 

The President, Prof. 0. Pettersson, said: The estimates for the financial 
year 1919 — 20 will be laid before the Council for approval at a later meeting, and, 
as for the estimate for 1920 — 21, the Bureau does not intend to prepare this before 
it has been enlarged by the addition of two more members to replace the representa- 
tives of Germany and Russia. The Bureau intend to ask these two members to 
act until the next Council Meeting. 

The Vice-President, Mr. Maurice suggested in this connection to elect M. 
Kerzoncuf, of France, and Dr. Hjort, of Norway (repeated in French). The 
proposal was seconded by Mr. Holt and was carried. 



— 11 — COUNCIL — MARS 1920 

Point 4a of the Agenda. (Report as to the present participation.) 

The General Secretary then made the following statement: As will be seen 
from my Memorandum about the participation of the various countries, only 
Germany has officially withdrawn from the Council, and the Council has during the 
war been supported by Great Britain, Holland and the Scandinavian countries: 
Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. Thereby the Council has been kept in being, and 
it has enabled all the departments of the Bureau to continue the work during the 
war. The Council, the Bureau, and all interested in this work are very much in debt 
to those which have in this way given their support. 

Point 5 of the Agenda. (Work carried out during the War.) 

In the above named "Rapports et Procès-Verbaux" from the war time will 
be found the reports of the work carried out by the departments of the Bureau during 
this time. I have therefore now only to report about the work carried out during 
the past financial year 1918 — 19. 

The reports of the various departments of the Bureau (see page I)wereread. 

Now about the general work in connection with the resolutions carried 
out by the Council, I beg to refer to the above named Rapports et Procès- 
Verbaux Vol. XXI, for 1913 — 14, containing, besides the usual reports etc., 
a statement of the position regarding all matters dealt with by the Council at the 
outbreak of the war, as for instance the British proposal regarding five years partici- 
pation, the North Sea Plaice question, the Baltic Plaice question, the Atlantic 
Hydrographical research question, the Salmon question, and the Statistical question. 
In this Procès-Verbaux will also be found all official answers fromthe 
various governments received through the Danish Foreign Office. 

Based upon these statements I propose now regarding these* matters to 
report only about what has been carried out since the period of above named 
Rapports et Procès- Verbaux of 1913—14, Vol. XXI. 

Point 8 of the Agenda. (Danish Atlantic Expedition for Sea Research) 
One of the subjects dealt with in this volume, viz. the plan to carry out Atlantic 
research by the man-of-wars of the various nations which were to be represent- 
ed at the opening of the Panama Canal, must of course be considered abolished. 
It has, however, been replaced on the agenda by the plan for a Danish Atlantic ex- 
pedition for Sea Research which will be dealt with at this meeting. 

Point 6 of the Agenda. (Communication and Deliberation regard- 
ing the Plaice question of the North Sea and the Baltic. Danish 
proposal as to the minimum measure for Plaice landed.) 

Of the remaining questions the Plaice question will be dealt with separately 
on point 6 of the agenda, and a special Memorandum about it, by the General Secre- 
tary and Dr. A. C. Johansen, has been distributed. 

This Memorandum deals with the North Sea plaice question. I need there- 



COUNCIL — MAES 1920 . — 12 — 

fore only now to draw attention to the Baltic plaice question. At the meeting of 
the Council in September 1913, a Recommendation was adopted for an agreement 
between Germany and Denmark as to protective measures for Plaice and Flounder 
in the Western Baltic. 

On account of the war, this agreement has not taken place officially by the 
two countries in question, but it has happened that new fishery laws have been 
carried in both countries during the war, and in these laws the said protective 
measures, recommended by the Council, have been inserted. 

Point 7 of 'the Agenda. (The Herring and Salmon questions.) 

At the meeting of the Council in September 1913 it was resolved that a 
Committee should be appointed to formulate proposals for the future conduct of 
herring investigations on a wide scale. The Committee, for which Dr. Hjort 
was elected as President, held a meeting in Copenhagen in April 1914, and drew 
up a detailed programme for the investigations (see Procès-Verbaux Vol. XXI, 
page 18). This programme should have been laid before the Council at a meeting to 
be held in September 1914; this was, however, deferred on account of the war. 
Nevertheless herring investigations have been carried out during the war by the neu- 
tral countries: Holland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark, in accordance with the lines 
laid down in the said programme. The results of these investigations will be dealt 
with in the sectional meetings. 

As will be remembered, this question has been discussed by the Council in 
order to have the biology of the salmon and the sea trout examined, to see, 
whether international measures regarding size limits, hatching operations, etc. for 
these fishes would be desirable in countries bordering on the Baltic. 

All these countries have participated in such investigations, and two reports 
about the result have been given by Professor Henking (Rapports at Procès-Ver- 
baux Vol. XVI, 1913, and Vol. XXIII, 1916.) The investigations have been continu- 
ed during the war in Sweden, Germany, and Denmark, and after the lines laid down 
in the programme published in the Procès- Verbaux Vol. XIV, 1912. A large material 
concerning the growth and migrations of the salmon and sea trout has been collected. 
Further report about the investigations will be given in the sectional meetings. 

Point 11 of the Agenda. (Other business.) 

At a meeting of delegates from the Scandinavian countries 
and the Netherlands, held in Copenhagen from 23rd^ — 25th May, 
1918, (see Procès-Verbaux, Vol. XXV) several of the above named questions were 
discussed, in particular the plaice question and plans for continuing investigations 
of plaice during the war, the Bulletin hydrographique, and the Swedish and Danish 
investigations as to races of herring. Several administrative matters were dealt 
with, and a lecture was given by Professor Gran about Investigations and experiments 
during the last years about the reproduction of the plant plankton in the Christiania- 



— 13 — COUNCIL — MAES 1920 

fjord in relation to the oxygen content, alkalinity and content of organic matter 
in the sea water. 

On the suggestion of the President, Professor Pettersson, a plan for compila- 
tion and publication of surface temperatures from 1900 — 1913, in certain parts of 
the North Atlantic, was agreed upon at this meeting. The results hereof have been 
published in the Bulletin Hydrographique. 

A long series of publications has been printed and issued during the war. 
I beg to refer to the report distributed to the members of this meeting. (Appendix. 
See p. 90.) 

Point 1 of the Agenda (continued). At the suggestion of the President, the 
Sections were formed, so that the Sectional work could be commenced the follow- 
ing morning and, while offering to open the Hydrographical and Plankton Section 
himself, he asked that Prof. D'Arcy Thompson should open the Section for Stati- 
stics and Fisheries. 

To this Prof. Thompson agreed, and at the same time he expressed a desire 
that those gentlemen who had special knowledge of the subject matter of the Bul- 
letin Statistique would communicate with him so that they could fix a time to dis- 
cuss the details of the Bulletin, as he would like their help especially as regarded 
literary criticism and suggestions. He wanted men who were sufficiently acquainted 
with the national statistics, so that they would know what could actually be attained, 
which was a very different matter from what was conceived in the imagination. 
For practical purposes it was urgently desirable that they should again 
consider the case and have a small committee, more or less of specialists who were 
willing and able to advise in the matter. Other statistical questions, as well as the 
Fisheries question, would come within the scope of the general biological discussions. 

The President further expressed a desire that the various delegates should, 
for practical reasons, inform the General Secretary to which Section they would 
mainly attach themselves, even though they might also participate in the work 
of the other. Section. The names were announced to the General Secretary as follows: 

Hydrographical and Plankton Section: Prof. Pettersson, Dr. 
Allan, Prof. Behal, Dr. Ekman, Prof, van Everdingen, Mr. Farran, Prof. 
Gardiner, Prof. Gilson, Prof. Gran, Dr. Jee, Dr. Johnstone, Prof. Knudsen, 
Prof. Ostenfeld, Docent Pettersson, Prof. Witting and Dr. Wollaston. 

Fisheries and Statistical Section: Dr. Andersson, Mr. Bottemanne^ 
Dr. Fulton, Dr. Johansen, Mr. Jones, Mr. Borley, Dr. Järvi, Dr. Redeke, 
Dr. Rosen, Dr. Russell, Mr. Sund, Mr. Lea. It was decided that the Sections 
should meet the next morning at 10 o'clock in the Lecture Hall, Surveyors' Institution. 

Point 6 of the Agenda (continued). The President then proposed that the 
remaining time of the meeting should be devoted to hearing a résuriié by Captain 
DRECHSELof the Plaice Question, which had been a cardinal question for 18 years. 
This was agreed to. 



COUNCIL — MARS 1920 — 14 — 

The Danish Delegate Captain Drechsel then referred to the memorandum 
about the plaice question by himself and Dr. A. C. Johansen. He mentioned the 
results arrived at by previous investigations and the resolutions as to an inter- 
national minimum size limit for plaice in the North Sea, further the publications 
issued during the war about the plaice question by Professor d'AncY Thompson 
and Dr. Fulton for Scotland, Dr. Mastekman for England. On the whole the results 
arrived at by these authors confirm the previous results, only Dr. Masterman's 
show an increase of medium and small plaice during the years from 1906 — 12, 
not ascertained by previous investigators. 

It was pointed out that the proposal of the Council as to a minimum size 
of 22 — 23 cm was not satisfactory and that it should now be examined whether 
better and more effective results could be attained. 

The stock of plaice in the North Sea had in all probability been considerably 
affected by the strong and continued restriction of the North Sea fishery caused 
by the war. Many observations and measurements of plaice had been carried out 
during the war with the result that plaice and other important flat fishes, as well 
as haddock seem to be very abundant and of considerable sizes in the North Sea. 
The present moment and the present situation are therefore very favourable for a 
revision of previous results. Measures should be taken as soon as possible because 
very likely the plaice fishery in the North Sea will before long be carried on very 
intensely, and if the stock of fish thereby should again be reduced the Council 
would then have to face the same difficulties as before the war in carrying through 
effective restrictions of fisheries. 

In recommending the adoption of a high size limit for plaice the conclusions 
of the Council, agreed upon in 1913, were referred to. Besides the size limit it was 
then suggested that the best way to protect the fish in the North Sea would be 
by closed areas. The chief nursery grounds should be closed to steam trawlers. 
This question ought to be dealt with now very carefully. 

The French interest in the North Sea fishery was dealt with and the hope 
expressed that the French Government would share the desire of the Council 
to obtain international protective laws for the North Sea Fishery. Finally the 
questions which were thought useful to deal with now were formulated as follows: 

1. Whether a common minimum size for plaice of 25' — 26 cm. total length for 
the North Sea is regarded as desirable. 

If not, whether a minimum size of 25 — 26 cm. for steam trawlers and of 
22 — 23 cm. for sailing crafts can be adopted. 

2. Whether on the whole a minimum size for plaice can be considered sufficient 
for the protection of young plaice, even if the size agreed upon should be 25- — 
26 cm. 



— 16 — COUNCIL — MARS 1920 

If this is not the case, whether closed areas for trawlers in the North 
Sea should be recommended, and if so, to what extent. 

3. The manner in which the violation of such closed areas should be controlled. 

4. The fisheries which should be declared legal within the closed areas and the 
minimum size for plaice required in addition to the closed areas, in order to 
prevent destructive fishery within them. 

5. The way in which the closing of certain areas can be expected to interfere with 
other fishery, in particular of turbot, sole and haddock. This also considered 
from an economical point of view. 

6. Besides this, in my opinion the question should be dealt with, whether it would 
be possible now to agree upon certain minimum sizes for other flat fish than 
plaice, as turbot and sole. 

1. Peut-on demander que la taille limite de la plie débarquée dans les ports soit 
fixée à 0.25 cm. ou 0.26 cm.? 

Pourrait-on en cas contraire accepter que cette taille soit fixée pour les 
plies débarquées par les chalutiers à vapeur à 0.25 cm. ou 0.26 cm. et pour 
les plies débarquées par les voiliers à 0.22 cm. ou 0.23 cm. 

2. Peut-on considérer qu'une limite de taille marchande pour les jeunes plies 
constitue par sa fixation une protection suffisante pour ces poissons? 

Doit-on au contraire fermer certains secteurs aux chalutiers de la mer 
du Nord? Quelle serait l'étendue de ces secteurs? 

3. Comment contrôler la fermeture de ces secteurs? 

4. Quelles pêches peuvent être faites dans ces secteurs en dehors des plies ? En 
dehors des secteurs fermés, quelle taille minima fixer? 

5. Quelles seraient les conséquences de cette fermeture de certains secteurs pour 
la pêche du turbot, de la sole, de l'églefin? au point de vue économique? 

6. Quelles tailles minima seraient à fixer pour les autres poissons plats, la sole 
et le turbot, par exemple? 

Point 9 of the Agenda (Proposition regarding Yearly Administra- 
tive Report, and statement of the work done in each country, and 
how far the Council's resolutions have been carried out). 

Mr. Maurice said: President and Gentlemen; I have asked the President 
to allow me to take No. 9 on the Agenda. It is a very simple point, but a very im- 
portant one. In the past we have been rather too much inclined to promote pro- 
grammes which were beyond our ability to carry out, and at this moment, when 
we are forming sections in which the detailed programmes of work will be thrashed 
out, I would like to utter a word of warning and I suggest, that the Council should 
remember — and that all the representatives of the different countries who are 



Council — mars inao — 16 — 

working in the sections should always have in mind — in recommending any particular 
programme of work that they are going themselves to undertake to play a part 
in it, and that they should not undertake anything that they are not quite certain 
they can carry out. Nothing is so unsatisfactory as to have a very fine programme, 
ideally perfect perhaps, and to know before you start that you will fall far short 
of it. We had better make up our minds what we can do, and we must all feel that 
at the present moment our resources are so limited — we are only slowly recovering 
from the conflict on which we have been engaged for the last five years — that 
we cannot expect to have at our disposal at the present moment all the funds 
for research work that we should like to have, whether in the form of ships and 
material, or in the form of men, because, as everybody knows, during the last 5 
years there has been no considerable output of young scientists coming on to help 
us in research work, and many have lost their lives in the war. Therefore we must 
start with a heavy handicap and I should like to impress on the Council and on 
the Sections the importance of making up their minds on what can be done, and 
not advocating programmes which cannot be carried out. 

Coupled with that I make the suggestion — though I do not suggest that 
the person should be named now — that the Council should appoint, in respect of 
each of the principal questions, or possibly in respect of all questions together — 
somebody who should frame an administrative report for every year, indicating 
how far the programmes which we have laid down have been actually carried out, 
and that it should be the business of that individual to keep in touch with the 
different countries and, not waiting till the end of the year or to the next meeting, 
but, say, once in every three months, to ask for a report as to how the work is 
going on which they have undertaken. That is a practical measure which I think 
it desirable to adopt from a knowledge of human nature. Everybody knows and 
will admit that if somebody comes at intervals and asks whether you have done 
so and so or not, you are more likely to do it. That is the kind of stimulus that, 
I think, might usefully be given. 

Perhaps you will allow me to add a few words in French for the benefit 
of our French friends. Je propose au Conseil qu'on ne propose aucun programme 
qui ne puisse être complètement achevé; dans les Sections qui vont établir ces 
programmes il .est désirable que chacun se limite à ce que son pays peut faire et 
ne propose pas des recherches alors qu'il n'est pas certain que le pays qu'il repré- 
sente pourra les exécuter. Il faudrait que quelqu'un prenne régulièrement con- 
naissance par les rapports des différents pays de ce qu'ils ont accomph de leur 
tâche, tous les trois mois par exemple. 

Dr. Jones heartily concurred with the remarks made by Mr. Maurice, 
emphasising the need for concentration. Instead of dividing energies over many 
subjects he thought it would be better to concentrate on two or three. 



— 17 — COUNCIL — MARS 1920 

The President also supported Mr. Maurice, only he asked for some explana- 
tion as to how this control of the work should be exercised. It seemed to be a matter 
of Bureau control. Was it intended that the person chosen should be outside the 
Bureau ? 

Mr. Maurice explained that he was not proposing to usurp the functions 
of the Bureau, but he did not think in the past that it had been the practice of 
the General Secretary to call for a report of progress at regular intervals. He was 
anxious that the Bureau — if it was thought well that it should be the Bureau 
— should be empowered at any time to find out what had been done as regarded the 
programmes by the various countries. He did not attach importance to the appoint- 
ment of anybody specially for the purpose, provided that the reports were secured. 

Dr. Hjort thanked Mr. Maurice for his proposal and for the able way 
in which he had put forward his suggestions. He thought at the same time that 
they must take into consideration some great difficulties of the past which might 
excuse apparent shortcomings. For instance, the work had to be started with 
incomplete equipment and arrangements. The workers had to 'feel their way very 
vaguely and develop the methods of work as they went on. There was also the 
difficulty that when at the meeting proposals were made and programmes drawn 
up, plans were discussed and made, and then afterwards in the different countries 
money had to be found for carrying out these plans and administrative difficulties 
had to be faced. Delegates did not come to the meetings with so much money 
in their pockets to spend on this work, but they had to raise it afterwards. It was 
therefore difficult to know beforehand exactly how much could be undertaken. 
This was, to some extent, an excuse for incomplete work, but of course it would 
be better to have it otherwise. He also thought the ideas Mr. Maurice had laid 
before them were not so easy to discuss generally at the meeting. He thought it 
would be better not to take any particular standpoint at this meeting of the Council, 
but to talk the matter over in the different committees and be guided by the result 
of these discussions during the next few days. When the programmes were decided 
upon it might be the right moment to consider how Mr. Maurice's ideas could 
be carried out in definite proposals. 

Mr^ Maurice concurred in Dr. Hjort's proposal. He had not meant to 
ask for a formal resolution, but merely wanted the sections to take these points 
into consideration, which was the reason he had raised them at the first meeting. 
It also was not his wish to ask Dr. Hjort or anyone else to appear in a white sheet 
before the Council and apologise for deficiencies in the past. He was conscious 
himself, as one of the British delegates, of having lent himself to programmes 
that could not be carried out. All were in the same boat. 

The President said he knew from experience that it was necessary to bear 
in mind the principle underlying point 9, and thought it would be quite possible 

3 



COUNCIL — MARS 1920 — 18 — 

to carry it into execution in some way. Every resolution went first to the Bureau 
and if it found obstacles in the way the Bureau could accept it conditionally. In 
this way they could guard against unripe propositions. 

Point 9 on the Agenda was then put to the meeting in principle and carried. 



Second Sitting: 6th March 11.30 a. m. 

Chairman: President Pettersson. 
Present: Members, Experts, etc. (vide List p. — 



Point 1 of the Agenda (continued). The President opened the Meeting by 
announcing that the President had received the following reply from Buckingham 
palace to the Council's telegram to His Majesty the King: ■ — 

"I have received the King's Commands to thank you and the Members of the ConseU 
International p9ur l'Exploration de la Mer for the Message you have addressed to the 
King on the occasion of your first meeting since the war, and I am to express the hope 
that every success may attend the important work you have in hand." 

Private Secretary. 

Point 10 of the Agenda (Reports and Proposals in regard to Sec- 
tions, Programme for future work). The Reports and recommendations of 
the Sections and Committees were then laid before the Council for consideration 
and approval, i. e.: 

a. Joint Hydrographical and Plankton Section. 

b. The South-Western Committee. 

c. The Statistical Bulletin Committee. 

d. The Plaice Sub-Section. 

e. The Herring Sub-Section. 

f. Resolution on Eel question. 

g. Resolution on the Salmon question, 
h. The Limnological Sub-Section. 

(See the Resolutions pp. 28 — 43). 
As regards b, Mr. Maurice stated that this work would be carried out by 
the joint efforts of the English and French Committees. 

During the consideration of d and e Professor Pettersson stated that it 
. was thought desirable by the Swedish Commission to try to improve fishing gear 
in order to spare immature fish. Experiments in this direction had been made by 
Captain Ridderstad and it was believed with success. If any Commission would 
like further information on this matter in order to make experiments they were 
asked to communicate with the Bureau. 



— 19 — COUNCIL — MAES 1920 

When f was considered Dr. Redeke pointed out that the eel was one of the 
most important fish and that therefore work should be continued on as large a 
scale as possible. Holland was interested in anything concerning the eel. He there- 
fore proposed that Resolution 10 of the Procès-Verbaux of 1912, Volume 15, be 
confirmed in respect of the present year, and that the programme be carried out 
in the countries concerned as far as present circumstances permit. He continued 
in French : — 

Parmi les poissons les plus importants, étudiés par le Conseil International 
se trouve l'Anguille. Tout ce qui concerne ce poisson est intéressant, mais de plus 
sa pêche dans les différents pays est si importante que nous devons continuer nos 
recherches et nos études dans le sens où nous les avons entreprises depuis quelques 
années. Dans cette résolution, vous trouverez nos conclusions. 

Point 2 of the Agenda (Settlement of the Estimates for the finan- 
cial years 1919 — 20 and 1920 — 21). These Estimates were laid before the 
Council for approval. 

In connection with the second of these Budgets, i. e. 1920 — ^21, Prof. Knudsen 
made the following statement : — 

I suppose that this estimate is to be considered as a prolongation of the 
war estimates, and I am not going to propose alterations in individual items. I 
only wish to state plainly before the Council that the expenses can not be kept 
as low in the future as here proposed. To take an instance from the Hydrographical 
Department of the Bureau, which I know best, 1 may inention that the salary of 
Dr. Gehrke, who has served for 17 years in the Department, was 4,000 Kr. before 
the war, and in the present estimate it is proposed that he shall receive 6,000 Kr. 
only. As the cost of living, according to official statements, has increased by more 
than 140 per cent, in Denmark, giving Kr. 9,600 as an adequate salary for 
Dr. Gehrke, he cannot be expected in future to devote the whole of his working 
power to the service of the Bureau. Other instances might be mentioned, but I 
will confine my remarks to Dr. Gehrke. For various reasons 1 do not think it 
likely that Germany and Russia will be able to take their former share in the ex- 
penses of the Bureau in the near future. Therefore it seems to me that the only 
way of escape from the present unsatisfactory conditions is to ask the participating 
countries to increase their contributions. I therefore beg leave to put the following 
proposal before the Council : — 

"Considering the increased cost of printing and the necessity of giving adequate 
"remuneration to scientific assistants, the Council asks the Bureau to enter into negotia- 
"tions with the participating countries in order to obtain properly increased contributions 
"to the Council." 

This proposal is couched in somewhat vague terms because it might be 
thought better to leave the matter of obtaining increased subventions from the 

3* 



COUNCIL — MARS 1920 — 20 — 

participating countries in the hands of the Bureau. But if scientific work is to be 
carried on properly, as it was before the war, increased contributions are necessary. 

Dr. Hjort said: When the war broke out we were in a very difficult posi- 
tion, having to consider the uncertain problem of how this International Council 
could continue during the war. I discussed privately with my friends the possibility 
of some of the smaller countries paying a larger contribution, the Great Powers 
being involved in a very costly struggle. Great Britain has paid a most liberal 
contribution to this work, which saved the situation. On the other hand the interest 
of the smaller countries varied in each case. I myself have the honour to represent 
a small country, whose fisheries are perhaps second to none but Great Britain. 
It might therefore be our duty and our wish to contribute more than some of the 
others, and I have suggested that Norway should try to make up its share by under- 
taking the expense of the administration of the Herring work. In the same way 
I think that the only practical course open to us is that each country shall do some- 
thing specially besides making their contribution. I therefore recommend that the 
Danish delegates — if we cannot ask all the countries to raise their contributions 
— request their Government liberally to support the scientific work done in Den- 
mark. 

The General Secretary endorsed the remarks of Dr. Hjort and Prof. Knud- 
SEN. The Bureau had dealt very carefully with the question, but it was complica- 
ted by the fact that they did not know how many countries would participate. 
Germany and Russia would probably not join for next year and the United 
States and Canada did not as yet propose to join. It was therefore thought bet- 
ter not to raise salaries or contributions now but to wait until the number of 
participants and the amount of income to be expected would be known as we hope 
at the next Council Meeting. The proposed Budget must be considered as a War 
Budget and as adapted to the present income of the Council. 

Professor D'Arcy Thompson felt sure that Prof. Knudsen's suggestion 
would meet with the greatest sympathy. There was no doubt that Dr. Gehrke's 
proposed income was exceedingly small, while the services he had rendered for 
many years had been exceedingly important. He therefore asked the Bureau to 
reconsider the salary allotted to Dr. Gehrke in view of the fact that they were 
looking forward to a more or less prosperous future. 

Professor Witting seconded Prof. Thompson's proposal and suggested to 
raise the head II, 9, in the expenditures for the financial year 1920 — 21 with 
2000 Kroner to be taken from "Unforeseen Expenses". 

The General Secretary replied that the Bureau would like to comply with 
the suggestion made, but it would entail consideration of the whole question of 
salaries, which could not be increased at the present moment. 



— 21 — COUNCIL — MARS 1920 

Prof. VAN EvERDiNGEN Supported Prof. Knudsen because his proposal was 
put in a vague form, but he did not support the proposal of the other two gentlemen 
because the raising of one salary opened up other considerations. It would be 
better at the moment to be content with raising the contributions of the parti- 
cipating States. Though the entry of other countries would raise the income it 
would also increase the cost. He considered the present moment particularly suitable 
for discussing this question, when prices were going up in all countries, and urged 
that if other States joined the Council now it would be better to ask for the in- 
creased contribution at once and not to have to raise it next year. 

The General Secretary said that the Bureau was in general agreement with 
Prof. VAN EvERDiNGEN and would negotiate with the countries in question and 
try to draw up a proposal as soon as possible. 

The President explained that the great desire of the Bureau, in drawing 
up the estimates, was to keep within its income, and having regard to the very 
great expenses, they could not consider increasing the salaries of specialists yet. 
Prof. Knudsen had moved the Resolution and they might be sure that the Bureau 
would take the matter into consideration. The contributions of the various countries 
was a matter which concerned the Governmen,ts and they must be approached 
through the usual channel of communication, ■ — the Danish Foreign Office. 

The two Budgets for 1919 — 20 and 1920 — 21 were then approved. 

Point 4 a of the Agenda (Present participation and general situa- 
tion). 

The General Secretary said that a very important point was to be informed 
as soon as possible with regard to the participation of the United States. He apphed 
to the representative of the United States Mr. Hutchinson and asked him to do 
his best to promote the decision of the United States as soon as it might be con- 
venient to his Government. 

Mr. Hutchinson, of the United States, replied that, speaking personally, 
having no official authorisation to commit the Government of the United States, 
he had been very much interested in thé proceedings and was convinced of the 
importance of this work in the Atlantic region. It was his intention to urge his 
Government to take a part in these investigations, though he could give no as- 
surance whatever that his endeavours would meet with success. 

Dr. Redeke felt that this was the proper place in which to say a word or 
two upon the work done by the Bureau during a time of war with a very small 
income. In doing so he claimed to represent all the members of the Council, on 
whose behalf he thanked the personnel of the Bureau and especially the General 
Secretary, who had succeeded through his carefulness and zeal in bringing this 
International work through the transition from pre-war to post-war conditions. 
He moved a formal vote of thanks to the Bureau and the General Secretary for the 
work they had done during the war. 



COUNCIL — MARS 1920 — 22 — 

The General Secretary acknowledged the tribute and associated his colleagues 
in the Bureau with himself. He also recognised the great support received from 
the President, from Great Britain and the British delegates. The financial assistance 
of Great Britain had been of the greatest importance. 

Point 3 of the Agenda (Language of Reports, etc.). The General Secre- 
tary stated that the Bureau had gone into this matter and had come to the conclu- 
sion that as a rule one language only should be used, although it might be necessary 
tO- print two in particular cases. Should a publication appear which was of special 
interest to France it should be published in the two languages. The main reason 
for this decision was the extremely high cost of printing. 

Dr. Hjort thought it unnecessary to publish anything in both French 
and English. 

Prof. Thompson agreed with Dr. Hjort. The bulk of the publications would 
no doubt appear in English, but if it were thought desirable to publish anything 
in French that would be sufficient. Should it ever be necessary to publish some 
special paper in Finnish he could see no objection. 

Prof. vanEvERDiNGEN was of opinion that the Reports should only be printed 
in one language by the Council, either the one or the other. 

Dr. Redeke meant that the Reports should be printed in the language 
in which they were written by the author. 

The President stated that the choice of language must be considered by 
the Editorial Committee consisting of Prof. Gilson, Prof. Thompson and himself, 
and possibly another member might be chosen. The President here invited Mr. 
le Danois to serve on the Editorial Committee, and Mr. le Danois agreed. 

Point 4b of the Agenda (Measures to be tak.en for the future as to 
the continuation and organisation of the International Council and 
the participation of the Governments. The continuation of work for 
five years). 

Mr. Maurice said that at the last Meeting it had been agreed that the parti- 
cipating Powers must continue work for five years on the ground that it was not 
worth while embarking on a scientific programme without a reasonable period 
of work from which definite conclusions might be expected. Assurances had been 
received from all the Powers of their readiness to accept this principle, subject 
always to the understanding that the necessary money must be voted from year 
to year by the Powers concerned. The British delegates were authorised to say 
that Great Britain was prepared to contemplate a period of five years' work, subj ect 
to the necessary Parliamentary Votes, and he hoped it might be possible to get 
a similar declaration from the other countries concerned. It would probably be 
best if the General Secretary obtained assurances from other powers through the 
Danish Foreign Office. 



— 23 — COUNCIL — MARS:1920 

Professor Pettersson stated that Sweden was willing to adhere to the prin- 
ciple of 5 years. 

Point 6 and 7 of the Agenda (continued). Mr. Maurice thought the proposal 
he had made under this head regarding reporting on the Plaice and Herring questions 
had practically been met by a counter proposition of Dr. Hjort, i. e., that the 
countries which took the lead in any special research should also take responsibility 
for the reporting of progress. Only two items were really concerned — the Herring 
programme, for which Norway had taken the responsibility, and the Plaice pro- 
gramme, for which Great Britain was prepared to be responsible. Mr. Maurice^s 
motive in making the suggestion was the desire that it should be someone's duty 
to secure that the various countries taking part in the programme should keep 
their work up 'to date. And he proposed that Mr. Borley should act as reporter 
for the Plaice question, keeping in communication with other countries, especially 
Holland and Denmark, and inviting them to state, say once in three months, what 
progress had been made with the programme. 

It was agreed that Mr. Borley should be Reporter for the Plaice question,- 
and Mr. Lea for the Herring question. 

Point 4e of the Agenda (Nomination of the Members of the Bu- 
reau, etc.) 

M. Kerzoncuf said: Monsieur Pettersson m'assure qu'il a l'intention 
d'abandonner la présidence de ce Conseil. Je le regrette infiniment, mais il 
m'assure que son décision est irrévocable. Il ne peut pas rester. Dans ces circon- 
stances nous proposons de nommer comme Président Mr. Maurice, qui a les 
qualités nécessaires et qui a gagné l'estime de ses collègues. J'ai l'honneur de vous 
proposer l'élection de Mr. Maurice. (Applause.) 

Dr. Hjort seconded the election of Mr. Maurice and said: When the war 
broke out little more hope seemed left to this International Council than that 
it might survive the great world conflagration. Great was our surprise and admira- 
tion, therefore, when we learnt that Great Britain not only would contribute to 
fulfil what perhaps might be regarded as old obligations, but that even new inve- 
stigations were to be undertaken. We have during this Meeting seen reports made 
of scientific work from Great Britain and from Canada in the most difficult cir- 
cumstances. 

For us, who through twenty years have been trying to develop this co-opera- 
tion and who have sometimes doubted- whether some of the ideas underlying the 
work would ever be put on a firm and exact -basis, it is a source of the greatest 
pleasure that the extraordinary circumstances of the war, which gave experimental 
proof of the influence of the fisheries on the stock of certain fish, have not been 
lost but taken advantage of to the benefit of science for many years to come. We 
all know how much this is due to our colleague, Mr. Maurice, to the great belief 
he has shown in science and in the aims of the International Council. 



COUNCIL — MARS 1920 — 24 — 

Acknowledging his great services to the cause of scientific work and inter- 
national co-operation, it is a great pleasure to me to second the proposal to elect 
Mr. Maurice as President of this Council. In doing so I ask permission to add 
a word in my special capacity as Norwegian delegate. When the war broke out 
it seemed a critical moment for the Norwegian fisheries; they appeared doomed 
to ruin and inactivity. They could in my opinion be saved only by the recognition 
on the part of the Allied countries, and especially of Great Britain, of the hard- 
ships entailed by the war upon the Norwegian fisheries. At this critical moment 
Mr. Maurice was the first to make full acknowledgment of the necessity for fairly 
considering the situation of the Norwegian fishermen, thereby rendering the greatest 
service both to the country of Norway and to its 100,000 fishermen. Having spent 
the greater part of my life in the attempt to assist this seafaring population, I 
count myself fortunate to be offered this opportunity of giving Mr. Maurice my 
support and also to make this recognition — the only recognition possible at present 
— - for his great services to my country, and I desire to have these words recorded 
in the report of the proceedings. 

The election of Mr. Maurice was carried with acclamation. 

Professor Pettersson remarked that it was clear that this election was 
a popular one. No one understood better than himself the reason for this popularity. 
The Presidentship of the Council was placed in the hands of Mr. Maurice with 
full confidence, and they begged him to undertake as the first duty of his new 
office the expression of their respectful thanks to his Government and to the Chief 
of the Fisheries Department for all they had done in the past. 

Mr. Maurice, who was received \nth applause, said: 

Monsieur le Président, Messieurs les Délégués, c'est de grand cœeur que je 
vous remercie de l'honneur que vous me faites. J'accepte très volontiers la charge 
de Président du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, si pleine de 
dignité et de responsabilité, mais croyez que j'éprouve en l'acceptant, les senti- 
ments les plus variés: de la fierté que m'inspire votre confiance, de la reconnais- 
sance pour les compliments plus gracieux que justes que m'ont adressés mes bons 
amis, M. Kerzoncuf, M. le Dr. Hjort, et vous-même, Monsieur le Président, 
— de l'inquiétude, étant simple fonctionnaire, de me voir appelé à régler les af- 
faires d'une assemblée de savants éminents, mais surtout soyez assuré que j'ai 
la résolution bien arrêtée de ne rien négliger qui soit en mon pouvoir et qui puisse 
aider au succès des travaux si importants- qui nous occupent. 

Messieurs, je profite de l'occasion qui m'est offerte pour vous exprimer le 
vif plaisir ressenti par le Gouvernement de Sa Majesté, et particulièrement par la 
Délégation Britannique, en accueillant à Londres nos collègues des pays étrangers: 
ceux d'autrefois, et ceux qui pour la première fois prennent part à nos délibérations. 
Nous sommes fiers que vous ayez bien voulu vous réunir à Londres pour recommencer 



— 25 — COUNCIL — MARS 1920 

VOS travaux interrompus par la crise de la guerre. J'espère que nous avons pu 
vous prouver quelle importance nous attachons aux études scientifiques que nous 
avons commencé et que nous continuerons ensemble, et que non seulement les 
Départements de l'Etat, écossais, irlandais et anglais, s'y intéressent, mais aussi 
les grandes Sociétés scientifiques de notre pays. Peut-être me permettrez-vous de 
vous proposer d'adresser un message de remerciements à la Société Royale, à la 
Société Royale Géographique, et au Musée Britannique d'Histoire Naturelle, pour 
leur excellent accueil. Enfin, Messieurs, j'espère que vous avez eu, entre les Séances 
du Conseil et des Sections et les visites officielles, le temps de vous amuser un peu, 
car pour bien travailler il n'est pas nécessaire d'avoir toujours un air très sérieux. 

Messieurs, je n'ai pas l'intention de vous faire un discours. Ce qu'il nous 
faut à présent, ce ne sont pas des mots, mais des travaux. Nos programmes sont 
établis, il nous faut les mettre à exécution et en tirer des résultats pratiques et 
définitifs. 

Monsieur le Président, ce serait de ma part de la maladresse et de l'ingrati- 
tude de ne pas essayer d'exprimer nos sentiments de reconnaissance affectueuse 
et de respectueuse admiration pour le collègue vénéré, si estimé pour ses études 
océanographiques, qui a occupé la présidence de notre Conseil pendant les tristes 
et pénibles années de la guerre, et qui vient de présider avec dignité cette récente 
conférence: je vous suis reconnaissant. Monsieur le Président, de la bonté que 
vous m'avez toujours témoignée depuis notre première entrevue; nous tous ici, 
savons que c'est à vous surtout que doit son existence le Conseil International 
pour l'Exploration de la Mer. Nous espérons que vous continuerez longtemps à 
participer à ces délibérations auxquelles vous avez toujours apporté tout de sagesse, 
de science et d'érudition. 

Messieurs les Délégués, je suis certain que vous voudrez bien témoigner par 
acclamations notre gratitude envers M. le Professeur Pettersson. 

Professor Pettersson thanked the Council heartily for the expression of 
their confidence in him and assured them that the knowledge that he had been 
of some service to them was the best reward he could wish for. He desired also 
to express his gratitude for the co-operation and friendship he had met with on 
the part of his Enghsh friends and his collaborators in the Bureau — the General 
Secretary and his able staff. He proposed that the Bureau should be empowered 
to signify their gratitude for the services rendered by the Foreign Offices of Great 
Britain and Denmark by sending a telegram to the respective Ministers. 

M. Kerzoncuf said: Messieurs, avant de quitter une ville dans laquelle nous 
avons été reçus avec tant de courtoisie et d'amabilité, c'est un agréable devoir pour 
moi de vous exprimer à vous tous qui avez été mes collègues à la conférence mes 
remerciements personnels et ceux de mon pays. Dans cette importante question 
de l'exploration des mers, la France est venue apporter sa collaboration dévouée 

4 



COUNCIL — MARS 1920 — 26 — 

et en particulier celle de ses biologistes et de ses chimistes qui sont prêts à faire 
tous leurs efforts pour rattraper le temps perdu. En effet par suite de circonstances 
particulières, la France n'a pas donné son adhésion au Conseil aussi tôt qu'elle 
eut du le faire et je suis le premier à reconnaître combien ce retard a été préjudiciable 
• à l'intérêt de la pêche de mon pays. Cette industrie prend chaque jour une exten- 
sion nouvelle ; elle se transforme partout, devient une grande industrie, et de même 
que dans les industries de la métallurgie, de la construction navale, des mines, il 
est nécessaire d'avoir des ingénieurs et des savants qui guident les professionnels 
par leur science élevée, par leurs connaissances générales; de même dans l'industrie 
de la pêche, il est indispensable d'avoir recours à la science pour guider les pêcheurs 
dans l'exploitation des richesses de la mer. Cette vérité est maintenant reconnue 
dans tous les pays ; il ne faut comme preuve que la présence dans cette assemblée 
du nombre considérable de savants qui sont venus à la Réunion du Conseil apporter 
la contribution de leurs connaissances scientifiques. Et ce n'est pas une des choses 
les moins importantes que cette collaboration scientifique qui vient de permettre 
au Congrès d'élucider les questions importantes qui concernent les études sur la 
phe et le hareng, et d'établir une programme de recherches pour le merlu, la sar- 
dine, le maquereau et le thon. 

Pour ces dernières études j'ai été tout particulièrement heureux de pouvoir 
apporter une aide spécial au comité au moyen des navires de recherches quo la 
France arme en ce moment. Les recherches poursuivies sont tellement importantes, 
tellement nécessaires pour le développement de l'industrie de la pêche que les 
amateurs et pêcheries français ont été les premiers à proposer d'aider à l'exécution 
des recherches en apportant volontairement leur contribution financière. La con- 
séquence a été qu'à côté de l'action gouvernementale elle-même, on a pu créer un 
organisme autonome et indépendant qui porte le nom d'Office scientifique et tech- 
nique des Pêches Maritimes. C'est à cet office qu'incombera surtout, dans l'avenir, 
le soin de poursuivre les recherches et je suis auprès de vous le sur garant que 
tous ses efforts Seront dirigés en vue d'une collaboration fructueuse avec le Conseil 
International des Mers. 

Permettez moi, Messieurs et chers Collègues, de vous adresser encore une 
fois mes remerciements et de vous dire que, vous pouvez compter dans l'avenir sur 
tout notre dévouement. J'espère également pouvoir compter sur le vôtre. 

Mr. Maurice: There is only one name which will quite naturally present 
itself to us when considering the election of Vice-President and Chairman of the 
Editorial Committee. This latter post has been occupied as we all know with great 
dignity and erudition by Prof. Pettersson in the past, and since he has seen fit 
to renounce the Presidentship of the Council, I am certain I am expressing the 
views of all when I propose Prof. Pettersson for the position of Vice-President 
and Chairman of the Editorial Committee. 



— 27 — COUNCIL — MARS 1920 

This election was also carried with acclamation, as also the re-election of 
the General Secretary. 

Prof. D'Arcy Thompson, Prof. Knudsen and Prof. Ostenfeld were appointed 
Editors af the Statistical, the Hydrographical and Plankton Bulletins respectively. 

Besides the Chairman, Professor 0. Pettersson, were appointed Prof. 
D'Arcy Thompson and Prof. Gilson as members of the Editorial Committee. 

Point 6 of the Agenda (continued). The General Secretary pointed out that 
the programme of future work was laid down in the various proposals from the 
sections which had just been adopted. He wished to point out the special importance 
of the Plaice question. He knew well the difficulties connected with this question 
and with International agreements, for it had taken many years to conclude a Con- 
vention between Sweden and Denmark on the protection of the Plaice fisheries in 
the Cattegat. He wished however to point out the supreme importance of arriving 
at some results. The practical results for many years might not seem great, but from 
a scientific point of view much had been attained. The Governments regarded the 
Plaice question as a very vital one and were anxious that conclusions should be 
arrived at. He also urged the importance of early replies to letters sent out from the 
Bureau. Sometimes reports were received from all countries participating in some 
particular work, with the exception of one, and without that one report it was im- 
possible to proceed further with the matter. 

Point 12 of the Agenda. (Conclusion of the meeting). The Chairman 
then declared the thirteenth meeting of the International Council closed. 



COUNCIL- MARCH 1920 -RESOLUTIONS— 28 — 



c. 

RESOLUTIONS 

ot 

the International Council for the Study of the Sea. March — 1920. 



Hydrographical Eesolution 1. 

Section 



It is recommended that the British Hydrographical proposals, in connection with the 
Plaice investigations, be carried out, as amended in protocol, during the year 1920 — 21, and 
that Holland be invited to conduct certain observations at Helder, daily if possible, through- 
out the year. 

Resolution 2. 

It is recommended that surface observations of salinity and temperature be taken over 
the whole area of the north atlantic ocean at least as far as 10° S., and that these observations 
be extended in greater detail into the tributary waters to enable surface charts of mean con- 
ditions to be drawn up. It is further recommended that this task be entrusted to the Meteorolo 
gical office, London, as arranged in 1912 — 13. 

Resolution 3. 

It is recommended that France be invited to participate in the carrying out of resolu- 
tion (2) especially by observations from ships leaving Mediterranean ports. 



Resolution 4. 

It is recommended that the United States of America be invited to participate in the 
carrying out of Resolution (2) by observations on the following routes. — 

(a) Halifax N. S. to Bermuda, 

(b) Bermuda to West Indies, 

(c) New York to Bermuda, 

(d) New York to West Indies, 

and on other routes especially those crossing the Atlantic Ocean. 



— 29 —COUNCIL -MARCH 1920 -RESOLUTIONS 



c. 
RESOLUTIONS 

du 
Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer. Mars 1920. 



Résolution 1. , Section 

Hydrographique. 
II est désirable que les recherches hydrographiques proposées par la Grande Bretagne, 

en relation avec les recherches sur la Plie, soient poursuivies conformément au programme, 
pendant l'année 1920 — 21, et que la Hollande soit invitée à faire au Helder certaines observa- 
tions, journalières si possible, pendant toute l'année. 

Résolution 2. * 

Il est désirable que des observations sur la salinité et la température des eaux de surface 
soient faites dans tout le secteur nord-atlantique jusqu'au 10° S., et que ces observations soient 
étendues en détail aux eaux tributaires en vue de pouvoir établir des cartes indiquant les 
conditions des eaux de surface. De plus il est désirable que ce travail soit assuré par le Bureau 
Météorologique de Londres, comme il a été prévu en 1912 — 13. 

Résolution 3. 

Il est désirable que la France participe à l'exécution de la précédente résolution (2) 
particulièrement par des observations faites à bord des navires quittant les ports de la Méditer- 



Résolution 4. 

Il est désirable que les Etats-Unis d'Amérique participent à l'exécution de la résolution 
(2) par des observations sur les routes suivantes: 

a) d'Halifax N.S. aux Bermudes; 

b) des Bermudes aux Indes Occidentales; 

c) de New- York aux Bermudes; 

d) de New- York aux Indes Occidentales; 

et toutes autres routes, surtout ceux traversant l'Océan Atlantique. 



COUNCIL-MARCH 1920-RBSOLUTIONS — 30 — 

Resolution 5. 

It is recommended to Great Britain that the whole time services of one vessel for one 
complete year be allocated for the study of the hydiography and plankton of the entrance to 
the northern North Sea and that the area so investigated should be extended to the Norwegian 
Coast. At the same time it is recommended that Sweden should similarly examine the Skagerak. 

Resolution 6. 

It is recommended that observations on Lightships in the North Sea should be carried out 
on a similar scale to that adopted in 1913. 

Resolution 7. 

It is recommended that France be invited to participate in the carrying out of resolution 
(6) by observations of surface salinity and temperature at the Sandettie Lightship. 

Resolution 8. 

It is recommended that the study of submarine waves be continued by Norway and Swe- 
den on as intensive a basis as possible. 

Resolution 9. 

It is recommended to Great Britain that intensive current measurements lasting at 
least one full year be carried out by Great Britain with the object of tracing the monthly 
fluctuations of the Resultant Current from the English Channel into the North Sea, and that 
this investigation be closely associated with meteorological observations. 

Resolution 10. 

It is recommended that the following material be worked up in the Bureau during the 
year 1920—21: — 

(a) Mean sea temperatures, 

(b) Ice and its influence on sea temperature, 

(c) Hydrographical Bulletin for 1915 — 19. 

Resolution 11. 

It is recommended that continuous observations from Lightships and Lighthouses in 
the Baltic be undertaken in the way proposed before the war. 

Resolution 12. 

It is recommended that a study of the conditions of the ice in the Baltic be undertaken 
on such a scale that the distribution and the amount of ice can be followed. 



— 31 — COUNCIL-MARCH 1920-RBSOLUTIONS 

Eésolution 5. 

Il est désirable que la Grande-Bretagne consacre le service continuel d'un navire pen- 
dant une année entière à l'étude de l'hydrographie et du plankton dans la région de l'entrée 
de la Mer du Nord et que ce secteur soit étudié jusqu'à la côte de Norvège. Il est désirable qu'en 
même temps la Suède étudie de la même façon le Skagerrak. 

Résolution 6. 

Il est désirable que des observations soient faites sur les bateaux-phares de la Mer du 
Nord d'après une méthode semblable à celle adoptée en 1913. 

Résolution 7. 

Il est désirable que la France participe à l'exécution de la résolution (6) par des observa- 
tions de salinité et de température des eaux de surface faites au bateau-phare de Sandettie. 

Résolution 8. 

Il est désirable que l'étude des vagues sous-marines soit continuée par la Norvège et 
la Suède sur une base aussi étendue que possible. 

Résolution 9. 

Il est désirable que la Grande Bretagne entreprenne pour une année entière au moins 
des mesures de courant, aussi étendues que possible, en vue de préciser les fluctuations men- 
suelles du courant de sortie de la Manche dans la Mer du Nord, et que ces observations soient 
étroitement liées à des observations météorologiques. 

Résolution 10. 

Il est désirable que les sujets suivants soient étudiés par le Bureau pendant l'année i - 
1920—21. '\<ä. '^ 

a) Températures moyennes de la mer; ^Çr ft 

b) Glace et son action sur la température de la mer; 

c) Bulletin Hydrographique pour 1915 — 19. 

Résolution 11. 

Il est désirable que des observations continues soient faites des bateaux-feux et des 
phares de la Baltique dans la voie proposée avant la guerre 

Résolution 12. 

Il est désirable qu'une étude de la glace dans la Baltique soit poursuivie sur une échelle 
suffisante pour pouvoir connaître la distribution et le volume de la glace. 



COUNCIL -MARCH 1920 -RESOLUTIONS — 32 — 

Resolution 13. 

It is recommended that the study of the inflow and outflow of water through the Belts, 
Cattegat and Skagerak be quantitatively examined. 

Resolution 14. 

It is recommended that the mechanics of the interchange of heat between the atmosphere 
and the hydrosphere should be investigated and that special attention should be given to the 
phenomenon of evaporation. 

Resolution 15. 

For the study of the residual currents in the sea it is necessary to have very accurate 
knowledge of the tidal movements. It is therefore recommended that there shall be a sufficient 
number of tidal gauges established from which reliable data can be obtained, and the results be 
co-ordinated by some central office. 



Plankton The plankton section does not recommend a formal programme of investigations 

Committee to be carried out by all countries for the year 1920 — 21 as sufficient equipment and staff 

are not available. 

The section recommends the general ideas proj)osed by Professor Stanley Gardi- 
ner and wishes especially to urge the importance of the following points. 

Resolution 16. 

Investigations should be carried out to determine how far the variations in the content 
of dissolved oxygen and of hydrogen ion concentration of sea water can be used as a measure 
for the photosynthesis and production of organic matter in the sea, and to what extent the 
same factors influence the animal life. 

It is desirable that investigations as outlined above should be carried out during the 
EngUsh plaice egg investigations and also during a short period subsequently. 

It is also desirable that a similar investigation should be , carried out from the 
Norwegian coast during the spawning period of the herring and in the subsequent month. 

Resolution 17. 

It is of great importance that investigations should be commenced in order to determine 
the quantity of organic matter present in solution in sea water and the importance qf this to 
vegetable and animal life. 

Resolution 18. 

It is recommended that investigations on the life-cycle of the larger species of copepods 
and other planktonic Crustacea be carried out. 




— 33 — COUNCIL-MARCH1920-RESOLUTIONS 

Eésolution 13. 

Il est désirable que le flux et le reflux des eaux à travers les Belts, le Cattégat et le Skagé- 

rak soient étudiés quantitativement. 

lujILIE 
Résolution 14. \-^ 

Il est désirable que le mécanisme des échanges de chaleur hydro-athmospheriqi 
fasse l'objet de recherches, particulièrement en ce qui concerne le phénomène d'évaporation, 



Résolution 15. 

Pour l'étude des courants résiduels en mer, il est nécessaire d'avoir une connaissance 
approfondie des mouvements des marées. Il est en conséquence désirable que des données 
exactes d'amplitude des marées soient établis en quantité suffisante et que les résultats soient 
groupés par un bureau central. 



La section du Plankton ne demande pas qu'un programme spécial soit exécuté Comité du 
par tous les pays en 1920 — 21, faute du matériel et du personnel nécessaires. Plankton, 

La Section recommande les idées générales proposées par le Professeur Stanley 
Gardiner et insiste spécialement sur les points suivants: 

Résolution 16. 

Des recherches doivent être faites pour déterminer si des variations d'oxygène dissous 
et de la concentration des ions hydroxyles dans l'eau de mer peuvent servir de mesure à la 
photosynthèse et à la production de matière organique dans la mer et combien ces mêmes 
facteurs influencent la vie animale. 

Il est désirable que des recherches dans ce sens soient exécutées pendant les études 
anglaises sur les œufs des plies et pendant une courte période un peu-après. 

Il est également désirable qu'une semblable étude soit faite sur la côte norvégienne 
pendant la période de ponte du hareng et un peu après, dans le mois suivant. 

Eésolution 17. 

Il est de grande importance que des recherches soient entreprises en vue de déterminer 
la quantité de matière organique en solution dans l'eau de mer et son importance par rapport 
à la vie végétale et animale. 

Résolution 18. 

Il est désirable que des recherches sur le cycle évolutif des grandes espèces de Copé- 
podes et des autres Crustacés planktoniques soient entreprises. 

5 



COÜNCIL-HARCH1920-RESOLUTIONS — 34 — 

Êesolution 19. 

Tte study of the Distribution and Conditions of Life of Fish Larvae and young fish 
should be continued. Their food at diiïerent stages should be determined. The development 
of a method for catching fish-larvae quantitatively is regarded as of special importance. 

Eesolution 20. 
Tt'« South That a specific area of investigations be recognised, namely the entrance to the English 

^"'"" Channel. 
Committee 

Eesolution 21. 

That a permanent Committee be formed for the study of the above area, consisting 
of representatives of France, England and Ireland. 

Resolution 22. 

That work in this area be apportioned as follows : — France to carry out research in 
connection with the Hake, Tunny and Sardine, and Great Britain to investigate the Hydro- 
graphy, the Plankton and the Mackerel. 

Eesolution 23. 

That England be requested to organise regular Hydrographical and Plankton Cruises, 
to investigate the movements of the water in the hope of discovering the causes governing 
the migration of fishes. 

In order to carry out these proposals, the Sub-Committee consider and recom- 
mend that, commencing this year and with the shortest possible delay : — 

(1) France should organise a cruise in the area limited on the North by the Une 
of latitude 49° N., on the South by the line of latitude 48° N., on the West by the 500 M. 
isobath representing the edge of the Atlantic Slope. 

(2) That twice monthly, England should carry out, by means of commercial ves- 
sels, a hydrographie series of observations, which woidd be completed by further observa- 
tions taken between England and Ireland. 

(3) That Ireland should undertake a voyage during each of the months June, 
July and August along the line of longitude 8° W. to the fine of latitude 49° N., for the 
study of Hydrography, Plankton and conditions of Trawling. 

Eesolution 24. 
Statistical The Statistical Committee desire to represent to the Council the extreme importance 

Committee of prompt publication. The Committee draw attention to the great disadvantage of the 

delay hitherto experienced in the issue of the Bulletin, and the advantages to be expected 



— 35 — COUNOIL-MARCH1920-RESOLUTIONS 

Résolution 19. 

Il faut continuer l'étude de la distribution et des conditions de vie des larves et des 
jeunes poissons. Leur nourriture à différents stages doit être déterminée. L'application d'une 
méttode pour prendre quantitativement des larves de poissons est spécialement importante. 



Résolution 20. 

Qu'un secteur spécial de recherches soit reconnu à l'entrée de la Manche. 



Comité du sud- 
ouest, 



Résolution 21. 

Qu'un comité permanent soit formé pour l'étude du dit secteur par des représentants 
de la France, de l'Angleterre et de l'Irlande. 

Résolution 22. 

Que le travail dans ce secteur soit reparti de façon à ce que la France assure les recherches 
sur le merlu, le thon et la sardine et que la Grande Bretagne fasse les études sur l'Hydrographie, 
le Plankton et le Maquereau. 

Résolution 23. 

Qu'on demande à l'Angleterre d'organiser des croisières périodiques pour des recherches 
d'Hydrographie et d'étude du Plankton, pour essayer de définir par les mouvements de l'eau 
les lois des déplacements et des migrations des poissons. 

Comme suite à cette proposition le Sous-Comité est d'avis et recommande que dès 
la présente année et dans le plus bref délai possible: 

(1) La France organise une croisière dans un secteur dont les limites sont au N. le 
49° L. N., au Sud le 48° L. N., à l'Ouest la ligne de l'isobathe 500 m qui représente le 
bord du plateau continental. 

(2) L'Angleterre assure avec le concours des navires marchands une double série 
mensuelle d'observations hydrographiques qui seront complétées par des renseignements 
recueillis entre l'Angleterre et l'Irlande. 

(3) L'Irlande entreprenne un voyage mensuel pendant les mois de Juin, Juillet et 
Août le long du Méridien Lg. W. 8° jusqu'au 49° L. N. en vue d'étudier l'hydrographie, le 
Plankton et les conditions du chalutage. 



Résolution 24. 

Le Comité de Statistique désire exprimer au Conseil l'extrême importance d'une publi- 
cation rapide. Le comité attire l'attention au grand inconvénient des retards apportés jusqu'ici 
à la publication du Bulletin et les avantages qu'on peut attendre d'une publication des stati 

6* 



Comité de 
Statistique 



COUNCIL-MAECH1920-RESOLUTIONS — 36 — 

from a publication of general statistics within a year of the period to which they relate even 
though some sacrifice of detail and accuracy may thus be entailed. 

With this end in view the Committee recommend that the Fishery Departments of the 
various nations be earnestly requested to furnish the Bureau with the main annual statistical 
results of the fisheries as early as possible and in advance of the publication of their official 
Reports. 

Resolution 25. 

That it is desirable both for scientific and commercial reasons that the Statistical 
Bulletin be extended as opportunity occurs to include the statistics of all countries so as 
ultimately to furnish an epitome of the fishery statistics of the world. 

Resolution 26. 

That the Statistical Bulletin should also contain a brief prefatory account of the methods 
followed in each country in the collection of the statistics with the special object of giving a mea- 
sure or indication of the degree of accuracy and completeness attained in each case, or in other 
words the extent to which the statistics in the various countries may be considered comparable. 



Resolution 27. 

The Committee recognise the disadvantage of bilingual publication and consider that 
the practise recently adopted of publishing the Statistical Bulletin in one language only, 
viz., English, should be confirmed and continued; but that aU facilities should be given for the 
use of diagrams, tabular matter, etc., to any country desiring to publish an edition of the Bul- 
letin in its own language. 

Resolution 28. 

That it is strongly recommended that the practice already adopted in most cases of 
publishing the statistical data in round numbers (i. e. with the omission of the last three 
figures in the case of kilograms and shillings) be adopted universally. 

Resolution 29. 

That the Statistical Bulletin should contain a short list of the more important fishes 
with their names in the varioxis languages and their scientific equivalents. 

Sub-Section The sub-section for the plaice having considered the results of investigations carried 

for Plaice out before and after the outbreak of war are of opinion. 



— 37 — COUNCIL-MARCH 1920 -RESOLUTIONS 

stiques générales dans un délai moindre qu'un an après la période qu'elles concernent, même 
s'il fallait sacrifier certains détails ou certaines précisions. 

Dans ce but, le Comité demande aux Services des Pêches des différentes nations de 
fournir au Bureau les résultats principaux des statistiques annuelles de pêche aussi rapide- 
ment que possible, avant même la publication des documents officiels. 



Résolution 25. 

Il est désirable pour des raisons à la fois scientifiques et commerciales, que le Bulletin 
statistique comprenne, quand les circonstances s'y prêteront, les statistiques de tous les pays, 
en vue de fournir un résumé statistique de la pêche mondiale. 

Résolution 26. 

Il est désirable que le Bulletin statistique contienne une notice préliminaire sur les 
méthodes suivies dans chaque pays pour l'établissement des statistiques dans le but de donner 
la mesure et l'indication du degré de précision et d'extension atteint en chaque cas, ou en d'autres 
termes indiquant dans quelle mesure les statistiques des difiérentes nations sont comparables 
entre elles. 

Résolution 27. 

Le Comité reconnaît le désavantage d'une publication bilingue et considère que le 
principe de publier le Bulletin Statistique en une seule langue, à savoir l'anglais, doit être 
adopté et continué; mais que toutes facilités seront données pour se servir des diagrammes, 
des tables, etc. ... à tout pays désirant publier une édition du Bulletin dans sa langue. 



Résolution 28. 

Il est fortement désirable que le procédé employé dans bien des cas de publier les don- 
nées statistiques en chifires ronds, (c'est à dire en laissant de côté les trois derniers chiffres 
quand il s'agit de kilogrammes ou de shillings), soit universellement adopté. 

Résolution 29. 

Le Bulletin statistique devra conte uir une courte liste des poissons les plus importants 
avec leurs noms dans les difiérentes langues et leurs équivalents scientifiques. 

La sous-section de la Plie ayant considéré les résultats des recherches faites avant Sous-Section de 
et après la guerre, émet les avis suivants: la Plie 



COUNCIL-MARCH1920-RESOLUTIONS — 38 — 

Resolution 30. 

That owing to the profound effects upon the stock of fish in the North Sea, produced 
by the conditions prevailing during the war, it is necessary to ascertain as fully as possible 
the present conditions now obtaining on the North Sea fishing grounds. 

Resolution 31. 

That the evidence now available indicates that the closure of limited areas of the North 
Sea to steam trawling and.trawhng by highly powered motor fishing vessels, would be of benefit 
to the plaice fisheries. 

Resolution 32. 

That since the question of closed areas is to be further examined, and special investiga- 
tions are to be undertaken in this connection, the resolutions of the Plaice Committee of 1913 
as to the impositions of size limits should be reconsidered also. 

The sub-section agrees to a programme of further researches for the ensuing twelve 
months outlined in the schedule attached, with the object of providing material which may 
form the basis of new proposals for the protection- of the plaice fisheries and recommends 
accordingly. (See also page 59 & 73). 

Schedule of Researches wpon the Plaice Question undertaken by the Countries specified. 

Belgium: Market statistics. 

Measurements of unselected catches on steam trawlers. 

Observations and putting out of drift bottles from Lightships. 
Denmark: Statistics of plaice and other fish indicating area of capture, the areas to be 
used being subdivisions of the depth areas. 

Measurements and weighing of plaice. 

Investigation of small plaice near the Danish coast. 

Age determination of plaice. 

Marking of plaice. 

If possible, putting out of drift bottles from Light Vessel. 
England: As in programme circulated to the Fisheries Section. 
Holland: Market statistics. 

If possible, statistics indicating area of capture for the catch of steam trawlers. 

If possible, measurements of unselected catches of steam trawlers. 

Age determinations and general biological observations on plaice of the 
Texel grounds. 

If possible, liberation of drift bottles from Noordhinder and Terschelling 
Lightships. 



— 39 — COUNCIL-MARCH1920-RESOLUTIONS 

Eésolution 30. 

Par suite des eiïets profonds obtenus sur les réserves de poissons de la mer du Nord 
par les conditions ayant prévalu pendant la guerre, il est nécessaire d'assurer autant que pos- 
sible les conditions actuelles des fonds de pêche de la Mer du Nord. 

Résolution 31. 

L'expérience montre maintenant que la fermeture de certains secteurs de la Mer du 
Nord au chalutage exercé par des navires à vapeur ou à moteurs puissants, serait bienfaisante 
pour les pêcheries de plies. 

Résolution 32. 

Depuis que la question de fermeture de certains secteurs se pose à nouveau et que des 
recherches spéciales sont entreprises à ce point de vue, il semble utile de considérer de nouveau 
les résolutions du Comité de la Plie de 1913, aussi que les projets de fixation des taules-limites. 

La sous-section propose un programme de recherches pour les 12 mois suivants décrit 
dans le résumé ci-joint, en vue de se procurer des documents qui poiu-ront former la base 
de nouvelles propositions pour la protection des pêcheries de plies. (Voit aussi p. 59 & 73). 



Programme de recherches sur la question de la Plie entreprises far les pays ci-dessous indiqués: 

Belgique: Statistiques commerciales. 

Mesures de plies non triées sur les chalutiers. 
Observations et lancement de flotteurs dans les bateaux-phares. 
Danemark: Statistiques des plies et des autres poissons indiquant le lieu de pêche, 
en employant comme secteurs des subdivisions des secteurs de pro- 
* fondeur. 

Mesure de la taiUe et du poids des plies. 
Recherche de jeimes pHes près de la côte danoise. 
Détermination de l'âge des pHes. 
Marquage de plies. 

Si possible, lancement de flotteurs d'un bateau-phare. 
Angleterre: D'après le programme établi par la Section des Pêches. 
Hollande: Statistiques commerciales. 

Si possible, statistiques indiquant les lieux de pêche des chalutiers à vapeur. 
Si possible, mesures de prises non triées à bord des chalutiers. 
Détermination de l'âge et observations générales sur la biologie de la plie 

des fonds du Texel. 
Si possible, lancement de flotteurs des bateaux-feux de Noordhinder et 
Tersohelling. 



COUNCIL-MARCH1920- RESOLUTIONS —40 — 

Ireland: As in programmes circulated to the Fisheries Section. 
Scotland: As in programmes circulated to the Fisheries Section. 
Sweden: Observations on plaice in the Skagerak & Kattegat. 

Resolution 33. 

The Herring Committee, having reviewed the work which has been going on since its 
Herring jg^g^. meeting in 1914, is satisfied that its recommendations have in the main been carried out. 

Committee. ° 

though not to the extent of the programme drawn up at the meeting mentioned. 

Considering the pressing nature of the Plaice problem, the Committee does not propose 
to formulate anything more than a temporary and provisional programme of work on 
the Unes of that of 1914 given in Rapports et Procès- Verb. No. 21 . It is recommended, however, 
that the Committee be continued and that the Norwegian Government be asked by the Council 
to undertake the responsibility and expense of its administration and further that Mr. Lea be 
nominated to act as reporter to . the Committee. 

Resolution 34. 

Having heard with interest Dr. Andeesson's proposals as to the collection of statistics 
and records of the fluctuations in the herring fisheries during the past in the North Sea and 
adjacent waters, the Committee recommends to the Council that its members, representing 
each of the countries concerned, be asked to supply Dr. Andeesson with all available data 
on the subject and that Dr. Andeesson be asked to collate this and present it for publication. 



Eel Investigation, 



Resolution 35. 

According to proposal of Mr. Maurice, Resolution 10 of the Procès- Verbaux of 1912, 
Volume 15, was confirmed in respect of the present year, and the programme to be carried out 
in the countries concerned as far as present circumstances permit. 

See Procès- Verbaux, Volume 15, page 62, Resolution 10, that reads: 

(a) That investigations on the eel of the nature set forth in the programme of Dr. 
Teybom and Dr. Johs. Schmidt be commenced in the coimtries interested, and 
continued and extended in those countries where operations have already been 
begun; 

(b) That a programme of investigations, in accordance with the main ideas referred to 
in the said programme, be adopted, and, 

(c) That Dr. Johs. Schmidt be the leader and reporter for such investigations. 

Resolution 36. 
Salmon question. The sub-committee on the Salmon question recommend that the investigations be 

continued in accordance with the programme formulated in April 1912 (Rapports et Procès- 



— 41 — COUNCIL-MARCH 19âO-RESOLUTiONS 

Irlande: Comme en Programme distribué aux membres de la Section des Pêches. 
Ecosse: Comme en Programme distribué aux membres de la Section des Pêches. 

Suède: Observations sur. la plie dans le Skagerak et le Kattegat. 

Résolution 33. 

Le Comité du Hareng ayant fait la revision du travail exécuté depuis sa dernière réunion Comité du 
de 1914, est satisfait des résultats obtenus et pense qu'il n'y a pas lieu d'étendre le programme Hareng 
fixé à cette réunion. Considérant l'urgence de la question de la Plie, le Comité se borne à ne 
formuler qu'un programme de travail provisoire d'après les grandes lignes de celui de 1914 
donné dans les Rapports et Procès- Verbaux n° 21. 11 est cependant désirable de proroger 
l'existence du Comité et de demander au Gouvernement Norvégien de la part du Conseil, 
de supporter les frais de son administration. De plus il est désirable que Mr. Lea soit désigné 
comme rapporteur du Comité. 



Résolution 34. 

Ayant entendu avec intérêt les propositions du Dr. Andersson en vue de grouper 
les statistiques et les rapports sur les variations des pêcheries de hareng dans la Mer du Nord 
et les eaux-voisines, le Comité demande au Conseil que ses membres, comme représentants 
des différents pays, veuillent bien fournir au Dr. Andersson toutes les données intéressantes 
sur ce sujet et que le Dr. Andersson accepte de les réunir et de les publier. 

Résolution 35. 

D'après la proposition de Mr. Maurice, résolution 10 des Procès- Verbaux de 1912, Recherches sur 
volume 15, le programme a été adopté pour l'année présente pour être exécuté dans chaque Anguille 
pays autant que les circonstances le permettront: 

Cf. Procès- Verbaux, volume 15, page 62, Résolution 10. 

a) Des recherches sur l'anguille de la nature de celles proposées dans le programme 
du Dr. Trybom et du Dr. Johs. Schmidt seront commencées par les nations intér- 
essées, et continuées et étendues dans les pays ayant déjà commencé des études 
sur ce sujet; 

b) Un programme de recherches en rapport avec les idées principales du précédent 
est adopté; 

c) Le Dr. Johs. Schmidt sera le directeur et le rapporteur de ces recherches. 

Résolution 36. 

Le sous-comité du Saumon désire que l'on continue des recherches d'après le programme Question du 
établi en Avril 1912 (Rapports et Procès- Verbaux, vol. XIV) mais il est d'avis que les résultats Saumon 

6 



COUNCIL-MARCH 192n-RBSOLUTIONS — 42 — 

Verbaux, Vol. XIV) but they are of opinion that the results of the work which has since been 
carried out show that it is desirable to extend the investigation of the stock of salmon and 
sea trout to other rivers of each country than those mentioned in the programme. 

Resolution 37. 

That it is desirable to study the relation between the output of fry from hatcheries 
and the subsequent catches of salmon and sea-trout ; and to this end steps should be taken 
to improve the collection of statistics of the catch of each of these kinds of fish. 



Resolution 38. 

That marking experiments of Salmonidae should be continued on a larger scale than 
hitherto. 

Resolution 39. 

The sub-committee are agreed that the value of these investigations would be increased 
if researches on the above lines could also be carried out by countries other than those bordering 
on the Baltic, and therefore suggest that participation in the work of the Salmon Committee 
should be extended to other countries interested in salmon fisheries which are represented 
on the International Council. 

Resolution 40. 
Limnological ip|^g Limnological Subsection founded for the consideration of problems connected with 

Sub-Section, . . 

the fresh water fisheries recommends that the opportunity given by the Annual Meetings 

of the International Council should be utilised for the purpose of discussion on the possibility 

of co-operating in the solution of such problems, since researches of such nature will, to a 

certain extent, supplement the work done hitherto by the I. C. 

Resolution 41. 

The sub-section further recommends as a preliminary step, that the delegates of each 
of the participating countries shall be requested by the Bureau to furnish at the next meeting 
of the Council a report setting forward the present state of knowledge and the nature of the 
investigations in progress On the natural history of fresh-water food fishes in their respective 
countries. 



— 43 — COUNCIL- MARCH 1920 -RESOLUTIONS 

déjà obtenus montrent qu'il est désirable d'étendre les recherches sur le saumon et la truite 
aux rivières des pays autres que ceux mentionnés dans le programrae. 



Résolution 37. 

Il est désirable d'étudier les rapports entre les distributions de frai faites par les établis- 
sements de pisciculture et les captures ultérieures de saumons et de truites : dans ce but des 
mesures devront être prises pour améliorer le groupement des statistiques de captures de 
ces deux espèces. 

* 

Résolution 38. 

Des expériences de marquage de Salmonidés devront être continuées sur une plus grande 
échelle que précédemment. 

Résolution 39. , • 

Le Sous-Comité est d'accord sur ce point que la valeur de ces recherches serait aug- 
mentée si des études sur les mêmes bases pourraient être entreprises par des nations autres 
que celles riveraines de la Baltique et en conséquence suggère que d'autres nations intéressées 
par la pêche du Saumo.n, représentées dans le Conseil International, devront participer au 
travail du Comité du Saumon. 

Résolution 40. 

La Sous-Section limnologique fondée pour étudier les problèmes ayant trait aux pêcheries Sous-SectIon 
d'eau' douce désire que l'occasion fournie par les Réunions annuelles du Conseil International Limnologique 
soit utiUsée pour discuter sur la possibilité de coopérer à solutionner ces problèmes; des recherches 
de cette nature devant en effet completer dans une certaine mesure le travail déjà fait par 
le Conseil International. 

Résolution 41. • 

La Sous-section désire comme mesure préliminaire, que les délégués de chacune des 
nations participantes soient priés par le Bureau de fournir pour la prochaine réunion du Conseil 
une rapport constatant' l'état des connaissances actuelles et la nature dés recherches entre- 
prises sur l'histoire naturelle des poissons d'eau douce comestibles, dans leurs pays respectifs. 



6* 



COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - ESTIMATE 



44 — 



the 


D. 

ESTIMATE 

of 
International Council for the Study of the Sea, for 
the financial year 1919— 192Ü. 

Receipts: 


D. 

VERANSCHLAGTER ETAT 

des 
Zentralausschusses für die internationale Meeres- 
forschung für das Rechnungsjahr 1919 — 1920. 

Eianahmen: 


Head 


Nr. 


Items 


Kroner 


Kroner 


Titel 


Nr. 


Positionen Kronen 


Kronen 


I 
II 


1 

2-6 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


Cash balance on 21st July 
1919 estimated 

Annual contributions o! go- 
vernments tor 1919—20 

Denmark 

Great Britain 

The Netherlands 

Norway 

Sweden 


56881«) 

4675 
22225 
4675 
4675 
4675 




I 
II 


1 

2-6 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 


Veranschlagter Kassenbe- 
stand am 21. Juli 1919 . . . 

Jahresbeiträge der beteilig- 
ten Staaten für 1919 - 20 

Dänemark 

Grossbritanien 


56881*) 

4675 
22225 
4675 
4675 
4675 






Die Niederlande 

Norwegen 

Schweden 












Total receipts 


97806 


97806 


Sa. der Einnahmen . . 


97806 


97806 



Head 



III 



Nr. 



1-3 
1 

2 

3 



46 
4 

5 

6 

7-10 

7 



10 



Expenditures : 



Items 



Salaries 

Principal Assistant 
for hydrography*) 

Principal Assistant 
for Plankton*) . . . 

a) 1^' Assist. Secretary 
Increase for dear 
times 

b) 2"''Assist. Secretary 
Increase for dear 
times 

Total Head I... 

Assistance 

Hydrographical De- 
partment*) 

Biological Depart- 
ment*) 

Plankt. Department . 

Total Head II.. 

Incidental Expenses 

President*). 

General Secretary*). 
Chairman of Edito- 
rial Committee . . . 

Chairman of Statisti- 
cal Committee . . . 



Total Head III... 
Carried forward 

') See "Remarks". 



Before 

the TTBF 



6000 

2100 
2500 



1560 



6160 

2760 
1500 

3000 
8000 

2000 



1919—20 



Kroner 

3000 

1400 
2500 

1000 
1560 

840 



6750 

3680 
800 




5000 



Kroner 



10300 



11230 



3000 



2(i530 



Ausgaben: 



Titel 



Nr. 



Ill 



1-3 
1 

2 

3 



46 
4 



7-10 

7 



10 



Positionen 



Gehälter 

Assistent für Hydro- 
graphie*) 

Assistent für Plank- 
ton*) 

a) Sekretär 

Teuerun gszuschlag 

b) Sekretär 

Teuerungszuschlag 
Sa. Titel I... 
Hilfskräfte 

Hydrographische Ab- 
teilung*) 

Biologische Abtei- 
lung*) 

Plankton Abteilung . 
Sa. Titel II. . 
Dienstaufwandsg'elder 

Präsident*) 

Generalsekretär*) . . . 

Vorsitzender der 
Druckschriften- 
kommission 

Vorsitzender der sta- 
tistischen Kommis- 



Sa. Titel III . 



Transp. . . . 



Vor dem 
Kriege 



1919—20 



Kronen II Kronen I Kronen 



3000 



2100 
2500 





1560 



6160 



2760 
1500 



3600 
8000 



2000 



2000 



1400 

2500 

1000 
1560 

840 



6750 

3680 
800 




5000 



10800 



11230 



5000 



26630 



*} Siehe , .Bemerkungen" 



45 — COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - ESTIMATE 



Head 


Nr. 


Items 


Bstore 
th« war 


1919—20 


Titel 


Nr. 


Positionen 


Vor dorn 
ErleRe 


1919—20 








Kroner 


Kroner 


Kroner 








Kronen 


Kronen 


Kronen 






Brought forward 






2G530 






Transp 






26530 


IV 


11 


TraTclling: Expenses 

Total Head IV.. 


6000 


1500 


1500 


IV 


11 


Reisekosten 

Sa. Titel IV.. 


6000 


1500 


1500 










V 


1218 
12 


Expenses of the of- 
fice in Copenhng'en 

Rent, including heat- 
ing and service at 








V 


12-18 
12 


Kosten des Bureaus 
in Eopenhag'en 

Miete, einschliesslich 
Heizung und Bu- 












the Bureau*) 


5200 


4200 








reaudienst*) 


5200 


4200 






13 


Stationery 


800 


300 






13 


Schreibgeräte 


800 


300 






14 


Charts, books, instru- 










14 


Karten, Bücher, In- 












ments, etc 


1900 


100 








strumente usw. . . . 


1900 


100 






15 


Telephone, electric 










15 


Telephon, elektri- 












light, gas 


450 


300 








sches Licht, Gas . 


450 


300 






16 


Insurance 


70 


70 






16 


Versicherung 


70 


70 






17 


Postage, freights, tele- 
grams and similar 
office expenses . . . 


1000 


600 






17 


Porti, Frachten, De- 
peschen und son- 
stige Bureauausga- 
ben 


1000 


600 






18 


Translation, extra 
typewriting, correc- 
tion of proofs, etc. 

Total Head V 


1800 


600 


6170 




18 


Uebersetzungen, extra 
Maschinenschreib- 
arbeiten,Korrektur- 
lesen usw 

Sa. Titel V.. 


1800 


600 


6170 


VI 


19 


Minor expenses of 








VI 


19 


Kleinere Unljosten 










meetings 


500 


500 


500 






der Sitzungen .... 


500 


500 


500 


VII 


20 25 


Printing' 








VII 


20-25 


Drncltliosten 








20 


Annual Report 


1600 


1600 






20 


Jährlicher Bericht . . 


1600 


1600 






21 


Hydrographical 










21 


Hydrographisches 












Bulletin 


4000 


3300 








BuUetm 


4000 


3300 






22 


Statistical Bulletin . 


2000 


2500 






22 


Statistisches Bulletin 


2000 


2500 






23 


Plankton Bulletin . . 


6500 


1500 






23 


Plankton Bulletin . . 


6500 


1500 






24 


Occasional Papers . . 


2500 


2000 






24 


Gelegentl. Schriften . 


2500 


2000 






25 


Distribution of publi- 










25 


Expedition der Publi- 












cations 


2000 


1200 








kationen 


2000 


1200 








Total Head VH.. 






12100 






Sa. Titel VH.. 






12100 






Total Expenditures 












Summa der 












Kr 






40800 






Ausgaben . . . 






4G800 



*) See "Remarks" 



•) Siehe ,, Bemerkungen". 




COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - ESTIMATE 



46 



Remarks to Estimate. 

Receipts : 

I-l. Balance on 21st July, 1918 
according to revised ac- 
counts for 1917—18 . Kr. 52306.00 

Annual contributions of 

governments concerned - 40925.00 
Kr. 93231.00 
Expenditures for 1918—19 

estimated . . - 36350.00 

Cash balance on 21st July, 

1919 estimated Kr. 56881.00 

+ Russia's contribution 
for 1914/15 (Rbl. 14430,54) 

Expenditures : 

I-3a. Miss Hougens, formerly 1st Assistant 
Secretary, has, during the last few 
years, been in charge of a public 
appointment that will cease at the 
conclusion of peace. She may then 
either return to her previous position 
as Assistant Secretary, or take some 
other appointment. 

Since the service of a 1st Assistant 
at the Bureau is supposed to be necess- 
ary during 1919 — 20, and in view 
of Miss Hougens' acquaintance with 
the affairs of the Bureau, her previ- 
ous salary, 2500 Kr,, has been inserted 
on the present Budget and provisio- 
nally increased by about 40% on 
account of the high prices now pre- 
vailing. 

1-3 b. In accordance with the rules intro- 
duced in Danish public offices in view 
of the dear times, the salary has been 
increased provisionally by 840 Kr. 

11-4. On the Budget for 1918—19 this item 
was 4,500 Kr. (4,000 Kr. for Dr. 
Gehrke's salary and 480 Kr. to Pro- 
fessor Knudsen's Assistant). On ac- 
count of the dear times these sums 
have been raised provisionally on the 
present Budget by 2,000 Kr. and 
270 Kr. respectively, making a total 
of 6,750 Kr. 



Bemerkungen zum Budget. 

Einaahnien : 

I-l. Kassenbesland am 21. 
Juli 1918 'nach dem 
revidierten Rechnungs- 
abschluss 1917—18 . . Kr. 52306.00 
Jahresbeiträge der betei- 
ligten Staaten - 40925.00 



Kr. 



Veranschlagte Ausgaben 
1918—19 



93231.00 
36350.00 



Veranschlagter Kassenbe- 
stand am 21. Juli 1919 Kr. 

+ Der russische Beitrag 
für 1914/15 (Rbl. 



56881.00 
14430,54) 



Aiisg'aben: 



1-3 a. Fräulein Hougens, früher 1. Sekre- 
tärin, bekleidet seit den letzten Jahren 
eine öffentliche Stellung, was mit 
Friedensschluss aufhören wird. Sie 
wird dann entweder in ihre frühere 
Stellung als Sekretärin zurückkehren 
oder eine andere Stellungübernehmen. 
Da der Dienst einer 3. Sekretärin 
am Bureau im Jahre 1919 — 20 als 
notwendig angesehen wird und Fräu- 
lein Hougens' Einsicht in die Arbeiten 
des Bureaus in Betracht zu nehmen 
ist, ist ihr früheres Gehalt, 2,500 Kr., 
im gegenwärtigen Budget aufgeführt 
und wegen der gegenwärtigen hohen 
Preise vorläufig um etwa 40°/o erhöht 
worden. 



I-3b. 



11-4. 



In Übereinstimmung mit den Regeln, 
die wegen der hohen Preise in däni- 
schen öffentlichen Bureaus eingeführt 
worden sind, ist das Gehalt vorläufig 
um 840 Kr..erhöht worden. 
Im Budget 1918 — 19 betrug dieser 
Posten 4,500 Kr. (4,000 Kr. Gehalt für 
Herrn Dr. Gehrke und 480 Kr. für die 
Assistentin des Herrn Professor 
Knudsen). Wegen der hohen Preise 
sind diese Summen im gegenwärtigen 
Budget vorläufig um 2,000 Kr. und um 
270 Kr. erhöht worden, so dass sie eine 
Totalsumme von 6750 Kr. betragen. 



47 — COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - ESTIMATE 



11-5. Before the war, this item was 2,760 Kr. 
(1,440 Kr. for Captain Schoning's sa- 
lary, 1,200 Kr. to Miss Hansted, and 
120 Kr. for attendance). The biological 
Assistant was paid 5,200 Kr. Mow, 
since the retirement of the said Assist- 
ant, Captain Schening has the prin- 
cipal work with the statistics. His 
salary is therefore, on the present 
Budget proposed to be raised to 
2,000 Kr., Miss Hansled's salary is to 
be provisionally increased by 40% 
to 1,680 Kr. on account of the pre- 
vailing dear times, the total of the 
item thus making 3,680 Kr. 

I. 1-2 & The salaries and incidental expenses 
III,' 7-8. of the President, the General Secre- 
tary, and the Hydrographical and 
Plankton Assistants for this year 
have been reduced as in foregoing 
years. In case the British contribution 
for 1919 — 20 should be paid, the item 
III-S, — the General Secretary's 
salary — should, as for 1918—19, 
be raised, by 3,000 Kr., to its pre- 
vious figure. 
V-12. This sum is likely even to cover the 
expenses on this item for 1919 — 20. 

The President intends to propose 
that instead of the Assistants named 
in head I, 1 — 2, three Editors — viz. 
for Hydrography, Plankton and Sta- 
tistics — be elected by the Council, 
the redaction of the corresponding 
Bulletins to be entrusted to the care 
of these Editors. 



II 5. Vor dem Kriege betrug dieser Posten 
2,760 Kr. (1,440 Kr. für das Gehalt des 
Herrn Kommandör Schoning, 1,200 Kr. 
~ für Fräulein Hansted und 120 Kr. 
für Bureaudienst). Der biologische 
Assistent erhielt 5,200 Kr. Kommandör 
Schoning hat jetzt, seitdem der er- 
wähnte Assistent ausgetreten ist, die 
hauptsächliche Arbeit mit der Stati- 
stik. Es wird deshalb im gegenwär- 
tigen Budget vorgeschlagen, sein Ge- 
halt auf 2,000 Kr. zu erhöhen; gleich- 
falls das Gehalt von Fräulein Hansted 
wegen der gegenwärtigen hohen Preise 
vorläufig um 40 % auf 1680 Kr., ins- 
gesamt also 3680 Kr. 

1. 1-2 & Die Gehälter und Dienstaufwandsgel- 
III. 7-8. der des Präsidenten, des Generalse- 
kretärs, des hydrographischen und des 
Plankton-Assislenten für dieses Jahr 
sind wie in vorhergehenden Jahren 
reduziert worden. Falls der britische 
Beitrag für 1919—20 eingehen sollte, 
soll der Posten III-8 — Gehalt des 
Generalsekretärs — wie für 1918 — 19 
um 3,000 Kr. bis auf seine frühere 
Grösse erhöht werden. 
V-12. Dieser Betrag wird wahrscheinlich 
auch die Ausgaben auf diesem Posten 
für 1919—20 decken. 

Der Präsident beabsichtigt vorzu- 
schlagen, dass anstatt der unter 
Titel I, 1 — 2, erwähnten Assistenten, 
drei Redakteure — nämlich für Hy- 
, drographie, Plankton und Statistik — 
vom Zentralausschuss ernannt wer- 
den, zu welchen die Redaktion der 
drei betreffenden Bulletins anvertraut 
werden sollte. 



COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - ESTIMATE — 48 — 



E. 

ESTIMATE 

of 
the International Council for the Study of the Sea for the financial year 1920 — 21 

Receipts : 



Head 


Nr. 


Items 


Kroner 


Kroner 


I 


1 

2-9 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


Cash balance on 21st July 1920 estimated 


4675 
4675 
4675 
22225 
22225 
4675 
4675 
4675 


500ÜO 


II 


Annual contributions of the Governments for 1920-21 : 
Belgium .... ... 






Denmark 

Finland ... . . 






France 






Great Britain 

The Netherlands 

Norway 

Sweden 


72500 




Total Receipts . . . 








122500 



Expenditures ; 



Head 


Nr. 


Items 


Before 
the war 


1920—21 




I 


1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 
14 

15 


Incidental Expenses: 

President 


Kroner 

3600 
SOOO 

2000 
6000 
2000 
2100 

2500 
1560 
6160 
2760 
1600 

11700 

6000 

17600 


Kroner 
3600 

8000 

2000 
3000 
2000 
2000 


Kroner 




General Secretary 

1st Vice President and Chairman of Editorial 

Committee 

Editor for Hydrography 

Editor for Statistics 






Editor for Plankton questions 






Assistance : 

1st Assistant Secretary 

2nd > » 


20600 


II 


5000 
3000 
6750 
5000 
800 




Hydrographical Department. , 






Statistical Department 

Plankton Department , . 

Expenses of the Office in Copenhagen: 

Rent, service, stationery, books, light, gas, tele- 
phone, telegrams, postage, freights, translation, 
typewriting, minor expenses of meetings and 
other expenses 


20550 


III 


10000 




Travelling Expenses of the administrative Staff . . . 
Printing 

Unforeseen Expenses 


10000 

4000 
17000 


IV 


4000 


V 


17000 


VI 


72150 
50350 




122500 



— 49 — COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - REPORT 



F. 

REPORTS 

of Meetings of Sections and Connmittees. 



I. Joint Meeting of Hydrographical and Plankton Section. 



Wednesday, 3rd March, 1920. 

Professor Pettersson in the Chair. 

Present: Messrs. Allen, Ekman, van Bverdingen, Farran, Gardiner, Gilson, Gran, Jee, 

Knudsen, Ostenfeld, H. Pettersson, Witting, Wollaston. 



1. After introductory remarks by the Chairman, Professor Stanley Gar- 
diner proposed that the joint Section should recommend fundamental researches 
of a biochemical nature to be taken up by special investigators. This matter was 
referred to the Plankton Section for discussion and report. 

2. Professor Gardiner briefly indicated the nature and scope of the British 
•Plaice programme of 1920 — 21. He expressed the hope that other countries would 
be able to collaborate in this scheme of work. 

Mr. Wollaston proposed to include quantitative plaice egg researches as 
part of the scheme and gave an outline of his previous investigations. 

Dr. Jee outlined a proposal to put out 20.000 drift bottles. . 

These matters were referred to the respective sections for detailed discussion 
and report. 

Professor Pettersson stated on behalf of the Bureau that the results of 
the Plaice programme were wanted in April 1921. 

3. Professor Gardiner proposed the formation of a Sub-Comittee to for- 
mulate a scheme of hydrographical and plankton research in the area to the west 
of the English Channel. It was agreed to appoint the representatives of Great 
Britain and France for this purpose. 

The meeting then resolved itself into the respective sections. 

(Signed) E. C. Jee. 



COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - REPORT — 50 — 

II. Meeting of Hydrographical Section. 



First sitting, Wednesday, 3rd March, 1920. 

Dr. Jee in the Chair. 

The British hydrographical proposals were accepted as the basis for dis- 
cussion. See Appendix I, p. 64. 

Plaice Programme. 

1. Prof. VAN EvERDiNGEN Stated that in his opinion tew drift bottles were 
required on the hne from Swarte Bank to Haaks owing to the indeterminate drift 
of the water in this area, and suggested the liberation of larger numbers more to 
the South and on the Flamboro-off Grounds respectively. He accepted the recom- 
mendation that drift bottles, supplied by Great Britain, should be put out through- 
out the year at North Hinder and Terschelhng L. V. but suggested that the weekly 
hberation of 10 bottom and 25 surface drifters would give satisfactory information. 
They should be accompanied by regular meteorological observations which should 
include log and wind observations for surface water drift every four hours starting" 
at midnight. These log and wind observations should also be taken at all possible 
Lightships throughout the year in question. These proposals were agreed to. 

Professor Knudsen stated that owing to the commitments of Denmark in car- 
rying out Research in the North Atlantic Ocean, it would only be possible to sup- 
port practically the British programme with observations at the Horns Riff Light- 
ship. 

Professor Pettersson suggested that the British Research Ship should 
endeavour to make a study of Hydrogen Ion concentration and Oxygen Content 
at various depths and positions; but only in the two months of maximal spawning. 
This suggestion was approved, and Holland was also invited to carry out similar 
observations at Helder, daily if possible, throughout the year. 

With these amendments the Hydrographical section approved the British 
hydrographical proposals. 

Surface Observations. 

2. It was recommended that surface salinity and temperature observations 
should be collected on the following routeff: — 

By Denmark between (1) Esbjerg and Harwich. 

(2) Copenhagen and New York. 

(3) Copenhagen, Iceland and Greenland. 
By Finland between Helsingfors and Hull. 

By Holland between (1) Flushing and Folkestone. 

(2) Rotterdam and London. 

(3) Amsterdam and Hull. 



■ ■ ♦ 

— 51 — COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - REPORT 

(4) Amsterdam and Buenos Ayres. 

(5) Amsterdam and Dutch Guiana. 
By Sweden between Göteborg and Newcastle. 

By France on cross Atlantic routes especially from the Mediterranean. 

By Great Britain on routes across the North Sea, Irish Sea, Enghsh 

Channel, and Atlantic Ocean, as arranged in 1913. 

It was agreed that samples of water should be collected for analysis and 

surface temperatures be taken at Lightships at as many positions in the North 

Sea as possible. The following Lightships were recommended : — 

Great Britain at Varne, Smith's Knoll, Outer Gabbard, Galloper, Swarte 
Bank, Cross Sand, Outer Dowsing, East Goodwin. Also at Seven 
Stones L. V. 
France at Sandettie. 
Belgium at West Hinder. 
Holland at North Hinder and Haaks. 
Denmark at Horns Riff. 
It was recommended that Lightship salinity observations with temperatures 
should be taken at regular intervals not fewer than eight per month, and that 
on trans-Atlantic routes water samples with temperatures should be collected not 
less than three times per 24 hours. 

It was agreed that the Meteorological Office, London, be asked to under- 
take the task of collecting all surface material and the charting of the results ac- 
cording to the plan arranged in 1913. 

Instruments. 

3. To be discussed at meeting on March 4th. 

Sub-Surface Observations. 

4. The British proposals were generally accepted as highly desirable. In 
conjunction with the proposed investigations in the Northern North Sea, which 
should comprise the complete traversing of the Norwegian Channel, Sweden was 
invited to undertake similar intensive observation in Skagerak. The details of 
these investigations could be drawn up at a later date. 

5. Current Measurements and (6) Publication of Results were 
postponed until the next meeting. 

The desirability of continuing the study of submarine waves was discussed. 
It was recommended that Sweden and Norway be requested to continue, on as 
intensive a basis as possible, the investigation of the changes of level which take 
place in the boundary layers of waters of different salinities. 



COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - REPORT — 52 — 

Tidal Observations. 
Dr. Witting proposed that the Section would consider the possibihty of 
making the observations of the Sea-level more attainable and the use of these 
for the Study of the currents etc. A Sub-Committee was formed for this purpose. 
The meeting then adjourned. 

(Signed) E. C. Jee. 



Second sitting: Thursday, March 4th 1920. 
Prof. VAN EvERDiNGEN in the Chair. 



Proposal of Prof. Knudsen. 

Prof. Knudsen outlined his memorandum to the Bureau who invited thç 
opinion of the Section in regard to the work which should be carried out during 
the year 1920^ — 21 by the hydrographical department of the Bureau. He stated 
that the General Secretary had asked him to do so, and not to invite the section 
to enter upon wages and other financial matters mentioned in the memorandum. 

The Section considered the various details of Prof. Knudsen's Memorandum 
and recommended as follows : — 

1. That mean decade sea temperatures should be worked up on the 
completion of the material; 

2. That ice material and its influence on the temperature of the fol- 
lowing year should be worked up, if time permits; 

3. That if possible a Hydrographical Bulletin for the period 1915 — 19 
should be prepared. 

Prof. Pettersson announced from the Bureau that it was decided to appoint 
a Redactor for each of the Bulletins and that a meeting to decide pubhcation methods 
would be convened tomorrow. 

The discussion of the British hydrographical proposals was then resumed. 

3. Instruments. 

Sweden. Dr. Hans Pettersson described new forms of total immersion 
Hydrometers costing about £ 10 each for use where the salinity range was rather 
high. A description of these appears in the "Monthly Weather Review" (English) 
for February 1919. The meeting expressed general approval. 

France. It was hoped that a demonstration of the Favé tidal gauge would 
be given before the close of the meeting. 

England. Mr. Wollaston gave an account of the principles of a continuous 
recording current meter which the meeting recommended to Sweden for construc- 
tion and trial. 



— 53 — COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - REPORT 

Holland. The Chairman gave an account of a vertical self-registering 
tidal gauge at use in the Zuider Zee which had an accuracy of 5 cm in height of the 
water level. 

He also described a design of Dr. Schoute to eliminate the error due to the 
bending of the wire in the .lacobsen Current Meter. 

The meeting expressed the hope that these instruments would be made 
available at the Bureau. 

Denmark. Prof. Knudsen gave an account of his new photometric method 
for measuring the absorption of hght by sea water. It was suggested by Prof. D'Arc y 
Thompson that this account would be of great interest to the members of the Royal 
Society meeting during the afternoon. A vote of thanks was given to Prof. Knudsen. 

5. Current Measurements. 
Dr. Jee called attention to the Memorandum circulated to the meeting and 
to the requirements for future investigations. Se Appendix II, p. 66. 

Mr. Edser gave an account of this statistical study of current measurements 
and showed curves illustrating the various points of his memorandum. 

The Chairman commented upon the results obtained and agreed that 
continuous observations were necessary. 

Dr. Jee then formally moved the following resolution: — 

"It is desirable that intensive current measurements lasting at least 
a full year be carried out with the object of tracing the monthly fluctuations 
of the resulting current of the Channel into the Flemish Bight and that this 
investigation be closely associated with meteorological observations." 
This resolution was approved. 

Prof. Witting brought before the Section a proposal with regard to the public- 
ation by the Bureau of abstracts of the various scientific papers of interest to the 
International Council. The consideration of this proposal was deferred to the next 
sitting. 

The section then adjourned. (Signed) E. C. Jee. 



Joint Meeting of Hydrographical and Plankton Section. 

Third sitting: Friday, 5th March, 1920. 
Professor M. Knudsen in the Chair. 

All Members present together with Mr. Maurice, Mr. Hutchinson (United States) and the 

Delegates of France. 



The meeting was attended by Mr. Harries as representative of the 
Meteorological Office and opened by considering the hydrographical contribu- 
tions of each country for the year 1920 — 21. 



COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - REPORT — 54 



Great Britain 

France 

Belgium 



The contributions of these countries have already been 
dealt with under other headings. 



Holland 
Norway 
Sweden. Professor Pettersson enumerated — 

(1) Researches at Sea for hydrography and in connection with the herring fish- 

eries in collaboration with Denmark; 

(2) Researches on shore in connection with submarine waves; 

(3) Surface samples in the North Sea in conformity with the general scheme. 

Finland. Professor Witting outlined — 

(1) Coastal observations of salinity, temperature, ice, etc.; 

(2) Lightship observations of salinity, temperature, stream etc. 

(3) A deep-water expedition in the Baltic in the autumn of 1920. 

It is desirable to make observations of the nature and measurements of the 
distribution and thickness of the ice in the whole Baltic. Charts based upon ice 
observations taken every Friday are issued in Finland. 

Prof. Witting urged Denmark and Sweden to extend their observations in 
the Belts and Cattegat, so that a quantitative determination of the in-flow and 
out-flow of the water could be made. Agreed. 

Prof. Witting pointed out the necessity of making studies of the inter- 
change of heat between the hydrosphere and the atmosphere. 

The proposals were approved. 

The Chairman informed the Sections of the intention of the Danish 
Commission to send an Expedition into the North Atlantic during the present 
year. (See Appendix VII, p. 81). 

Professor Ostenfeld outlined the Danish proposals for their North 
Atlantic expeditions. It is proposed to make a preliminary cruise in 1920 and on 
the results to plan the main cruise for 1921. 

Professor Pettersson proposed that the Section should express its appre- 
ciation of the highly valuable scientific contributions which Denmark has made in 
the past to oceanography and marine biology. This was unanimously agreed to 
and the hope was expressed that the coming Danish expeditions would be fortunate 
in all circumstances attending the cruises. 

Surface Atlantic Observations of Salinity and Temperature. 
Professor Pettersson explained that the subnormal sea temperature of 
1904 in the North Atlantic could be traced on to the Swedish coast and that it was 
important to follow such transmission of hydrographical changes from the ocean 
on to the fishing grounds. 



— 55 — COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - REPORT 

After discussion it was agreed to elaborate an intensive surface salinity and 
temperature programme for the whole area of the North Atlantic Ocean and its 
tributary waters and to invite France and United States to share in this investiga- 
tion. It was agreed that surface samples for salinity should be collected at inter- 
vals of not less than every eight hours during the crossing of the Atlantic, and 
more frequently on coastal routes in the North Sea and adjacent waters. It was 
understood that the first year's work was to be preliminary and that a complete 
plan of investigation could be better laid down at the next meeting of the Council. 

Professor Stanley Gardiner in moving that the Council be requested to 
invite the United States of America to join the International Council laid stress 
upon the unity in brotherhood between all men engaged in science and in the applica- 
tions of science, a unity second only to that of their nationahty, and upon the 
desirability of all scientific work upon any line of research being carried out by 
similar standard methods in all countries for purposes of comparison; he thought 
that all would be greatly helped in understanding the principles underlying their 
work by extension to the west and south, and that ultimately the United States 
eastern fisheries would be directly benefitted thereby. 

After several other speakers had supported the Chairman ruled the motion 
out of order as not being in the province of the Section. He asked Mr. Hutchinson 
to convey to his Government the unanimous desire of all present to see the United 
States a member of the Council and to have their scientific men helping in the 
discussions in its Sections and Committees. 

Mr. Hutchinson stated that although he attended as a lay man with no 
official instructions to promise participation in the work of the Section, he per- 
sonally fully appreciated the importance of the proposed researches and therefore 
undertook with pleasure to convey to his Government the views now expressed. 

The Section thereupon decided to include in its resolutions those which 
referred to investigations off the coasts of U. S. A. and recommended the Bureau 
to transmit these resolutions officially to the Government of the U. S. A., in sup- 
port of the representations of Mr. Hutchinson. 

On the proposal of Professor Van Everdingen, supported by Professor M. 
Knudsen, it was agreed that the results obtained in each month should be charted 
and it was proposed to ask the Meteorological Office, London, to act as the Bureau 
for collecting all surface observations of temperature and salinity from all particip- 
ating countries on the plan arranged in 1912—13. The details of this scheme were 
left for arrangement between the British Offices. 

Investigations in the area to the S. W. of the British Isles. 
The French delegate, M. Kerzoncuf, read a Memorandum drawn up by the 
special Committee convened to consider this matter. He explained that it would 



COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - REPORT — 56 — 

only be possible during the first year to carry out a certain part of the original British 
programme and that the investigation would be carried on in collaboration with 
Ireland. 

Mr. Farran outlined the part to be taken by the Irish vessel. 



Tidal Gauge Measurements. 

Professor D'Arcy Thompson explained that an informal meeting to discuss 
Tidal measurements had been held Thursday afternoon at which the following con- 
clusions had been arrived at — 

It was agreed that for a study of resultant currents in the sea, a very accurate 
knowledge of the tidal movements was necessary. It is therefore most desirable 
that there shall be a sufficient number of tidal gauges established from which 
reliable data can be obtained, and the results be co-ordinated by some central 
office. 

The data to be so obtained will give the following informations — 

(1) Movements of water from the points of view of - — 

(a) Fisheries. 

(b) Navigation, both surface and submarine. 

(2) Height of mean sea level, showing whether the land is rising or falling relative 
to the sea. This is of importance both for Harbour work and drainage of 
low-lying land. 

(3) Tidal predictions for Harbours, etc. 

This information is therefore required for widely different purposes and by 
bodies which do not ordinarily cooperate in the course of their normal activities. 

The conference therefore recommends that a Committee or a Central Office 
be established to study the water movements in the North Sea, and that in each 
country some one body should become responsible for the collection of data from 
the various observing stations, and also for the inspection and control of the various 
gauges, so as to ensure that they are properly connected to fixed marks on shore 
and that their results are of sufficient accuracy for the purposes outlined above. 

The meeting concluded with a vote of thanks to the Chairman. 

(Signed) E. C. Jee. 

As for the hydrographical resolutions see pag. 28. 



— 57 — COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - REPORT 
III. Meeting of Plankton Section. 



First sitting: Wednesday, 3rd March, 1920. 11.30 a. m. to 1 p.m. 
Present: Messrs. Stanley Gardiner, E. J. Allen, H. J. Buchanan Wollaston, G. P. Far- 
ran, Gran, Ostenfeld. 
Professor Gran was elected Chairman. 



Professor Ostenfeld reported on the work done by the Bureau since the 
last meeting in September 1913. 

See Proc. Verb. vol. XXI, pp. IX— X, vol. XXIV, p. X, vol. XXV, p. 6, 
and vol. XXVI, p. II. 

Further he drew the attention to the following two points: 

1. In May 1914 the Plankton Department sent out to the participating 
countries a circular asking their opinion as to the desirability of, that the Plankton 
Department should undertake the examination of plankton samples collected by 
the different countries, acting as a kind of centre for the identification of plankton 
organisms. 

This circular was answered from most of the participating countries, but 
on the whole not in favour of the proposal. Yet it was the intention to take the 
matter up to discussion on the next Council meeting, but owing to the war this 
question has been abandoned. 

2. The Plankton Department has not much information, if the plankton 
investigations proposed for the spring 1914 according to the resolution No. 15 
of the meeting of the Council in September 1913 have been carried out. No reports 
of these investigations have been received. 

With regard to the second point it was now reported that Norway had 
made collections at two coast stations, England had made 3 cruises and Denmark one. 

In addition to this statement Professor Gran reported on his experimental 
work on the metabolism of the sea (cultures of phytoplankton) and Dr. Allen 
referred to the contents of his last paper (Journ. Marine Biological Association, 
Vol. XII, No. 1, 1919). 

A general discussion followed of the desirability of investigating the oxygen 
content of sea water and determining the hydrogen ion concentration. It was 
agreed to recommend the carrying out of such investigations. 

Professor Stanley Gardiner then laid before the meeting a typewritten 
memorandum (given p. 71) dealing generally with "The Physicochemical conditions 
underlying Life in the Sea." 

This matter was discussed and the proposals given therein were recommended 
for adoption, especially with regard to the study of the organic matter dissolved 
in the water. 

Some further general discussion then followed. 

(Signed) C. H. Ostenfeld. 



COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - REPORT — 58 — 

Second Sitting: Thursday 4th March. 10.30 a. m. to 11 a. m. 

Professor Gran in the Chair. 
Present: Messrs. Allen, Buchanan Wollaston, Farran, Stanley Gardiner, Ostenfeld. 



The section discussed and agreed upon different recommendations to be 
laid before the Council. See the resolutions No. 16 — 19, p. 32 — 35. 



Third Sitting: Friday 5th March. 12 noon — 1 p.m. 

Professor Gran in the Chair. 

Present: Messrs. Allen, Farran, Stanley Gardiner, Ostenfeld. 



Professor Ostenfeld gave a lecture on the seasonal variation of some Plank- 
ton Copepods. 

As regards the investigation to be carried out in the S.W. Area during the 
months of June, July and August, 1920, the Plankton Committee made the follow- 
ing suggestions : • — 

(1) At least 6 Stations on the Irish line and 7 on the French line. 

(2) Collections to be made once each month. 

(3) Nets (a) for micro plankton; Nansen net 25 cm diameter of the opening, silk 

No. 25. 
(b) for macroplankton : Nansen net, 50 cm diameter, coarse silk (No. 3). 

(Signed) C. H. Ostenfeld. 



IV. Joint meeting of the Fisheries and Statistical Section. 



Sitting on Wednesday the 3rd March 1920. 

Professor d'Arcy Thompson in the Chair. 
Present: Members of the Council, and Experts. 



A joint meeting was held and the following Committees were formed: 

Plaice Committee, 
Herring Committee, 
Salmon Committee, 
Southwestern Fishery Committee, 
Limnological Committee, 
Statistical Committee. 

As for the Eel question see Appendix VII pag. 81. 



— 59 — COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - REPORT 
V. Meeting of the Plaice Commitee. 



Chairman: Dr. Redeke. 
Present: Messrs. Borley, Russell, Fulton, Hamman, Johansen, Holt, Joubin. 



The subsection for the plaice question considered the results of investiga- 
tions carried out before and after the outbreak of war, and agreed upon various 
recommendations to be laid before the Council for adoption. 

See the resolutions 30 — 32 pag. 36 — 41. 

The following I "Schedule of Researches" and II (Appendix IV) "Outline of 
the United Kingdom" were laid before the Committee. 



I. Schedule of Researches upon the Plaice Question undertaken by 
the Countries Specified. 



Belgium. Market statistics. 

Measurements of unselected catches on steam trawlers. 

Observations and putting out of drift bottles from Lightships. 
Denmark. Statistics of plaice and other fish indicating area of capture, the areas 

to be used being subdivisions of the depth areas. 

Measurements and weighing of plaice. 

Investigation of small plaice near the Danish coast. 

Age determination of plaice. 

Marking of plaice. 

If possible, putting out of drift bottles from Light Vessel. 
England. As in programmes circulated to the Fisheries Section (seep. 73). 
Holland. Market statistics. 

If possible statistics indicating area of capture for the catch of steam 

trawlers. 

If possible measurements of unselected catches of steam trawlers. 

Age determinations and general biological observations on plaice of 

the Texel grounds. 

If possible putting out of drift bottles from Noord Hinder and Ter- 

schelling Lightships. 
Ireland. As in programmes circulated to the Fisheries Section (see p. 73). 
Scotland. As in programmes circulated to the Fisheries Section (seep. 73). 
Sweden. Observations on plaice in the Skagerak and Kattegat. 



COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - REPORT — 60 — 

VI. Meeting of the Herring Committee. 



Sitting — March 5th, 1920. 

Chairman: Dr. Hjort. 

Present; Mssrs. Fulton, Jones, Lea, Sund, Russell, Johnstone, Wollaston, Hefford, 

Järvi, Redeke, Andersson, Johansen. 



Dr. Hjort referred to the last meeting of the Herring Committee, which 
took place in May 1914. At this meeting a definite programme of work was drawn 
up, to be carried out by all countries concerned. The prosecution of this work 
was to a great extent prevented by the War, but Norway had continued researches 
on seine and drift caught herrings during the war. Dr. Hjort referred to his visit 
to Canada in 1914, to examine the conditions of age and growth of the herrings 
in Canadian waters. The data dealing with these points had been worked up by 
Mr. EiNAR Lea, and the published report was laid before the meeting. One of the 
most interesting results of the work was the discovery that in Canadian, as in 
European waters, herrings from different localities showed marked differences in 
their rate of growth, and in the predominance of certain year classes, which persisted 
from year to year. Thus, the Canadian herrings could be divided into so many 
"kinds" or races, according to these characters. Dr. Hjort in expressing his regret 
at having to sever his connection with the herring work, proposed that the Nor- 
wegian Government should be asked to undertake the expenses and responsibility 
of administration of the herring researches. He then requested Mr. Einar Lea 
to give an account of the researches carried out on seine-caught herrings in Norway 
during the war. 

Mr. Einar Lea read a paper on the above question, which had been prepared 
for public information in Norway. He referred to diagrams which were laid before 
the meeting. The samples of herring examined were very strongly marked by the 
predominance of certain year groups. In the beginning of 1915 herrings of the year 
group 1904 formed by far the largest part of the catch, though, later in the season, 
a new and rich year group, namely that of 1910, began to make its appearance. 
Between the year groups 1904 and 1910 lies a series of poorly represented year groups. 

In 1915, year group 1904 is still predominant at the beginning of the season; 
the year groups 1910, 1911 and 1912 later make their appearance and form a large 
percentage of the catch. 

In 1916 similar conditions prevail. In 1917 a very rich new year group, 
that of 1913, preponderates in the latter part of the season, the larger herrings 
being mainly of the group 1904, as in former years. In 1918 and 1919 the year- 
groups 1913 and 1904 still form over 50 7o of the total catch, though the herrings 
of the latter group are now 15 years old. 

The "Large" drift-caught herrings proved to be of the same age composition 
as the seine-caught "spring herrings". 



— 61 — COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - REPORT 

A short discussion followed. 

Mr. WoLLASTON made a statement as to the position of the herring race 
researches in England. 

Mr. BoRLEY remarked that a report by Mr. Savage on the Structure of 
Herring scales had been published, that a report by Mr. Paget on Morphology 
and Development of Scales, and a general report on the Economic Aspects of Her- 
ring Trawling by Mr. Russell and himself were in process of pubhcation. The latter 
utilized the results of scale readings and maturity observations though not specially 
devoted to these subjects. 

Dr. Andersson gave a short resume of the Swedish herring investigations. 
In the Swedish waters the same year groups were predominant as in Norway. 

Dr. Hjort laid before the meeting the programme of investigations which 
the Norwegian Government intend to carry out in 1920. (see Appendix V). 

Dr. Andersson read a memorandum urging the necessity of collecting 
statistics of the herring-fisheries in past times, with a view to the study of the 
fluctuations of the fisheries and their causes. 

Dr. JoHANSEN suggested that the members of the herring committee should 
be responsible for the collection of such statistics in their respective countries, 
and should supply Dr. Andersson with the data obtained. 

Dr. Hjort asked the committee to adopt a resolution in support of this 
proposal (See Appendix VI). 

Dr. Hjort proposed the election of members of the herring committee for 
the present year. 

The Meeting proceeded to carry out the election of niembers (See below). 

Dr. Hjort thanked the Committee for their services during the time in which 
he had been associated with them. 

The Proceedings then terminated. 

(Signed) H. J. Buchanan-Wollaston. 

The following were elected as members of the Committee for 1920: 

Dr. Andersson. Mr. Borley. 

Dr. JoHANSEN. Dr. Wemyss Fulton. 

Dr. Redeke. Dr. C. Green. 

Dr. Järvi. Mr. Einar Lea. 

As for the resolutions see pag. 34. 



COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - REPORT — 62 — 

VII. Meeting of the Salmon Committee. 



Sitting: Friday, 5tli March, 1920. 

Dr. K. A. A'ndersson (chairman). 

Present; Dr. A. C. Johansen, Dr. N. Rosen, Dr. T. H. Jarvi, Mr. G. P. Farran, Mr. R. Southern, 

Professor J. Stanley Gardiner (during part of the session). 

Mr. A. E. Hbfford acted as Secretary. 



Expositions of investigations carried out in Denmark and in Sweden were 
given by Dr. Johansen and by Dr. Rosen respectively. 

The Danish researches, which were mainly conducted in the River Gudenaa 
in Jutland, dealt principally with the following points: — • 

1) The size and age of the young salmon and sea trout when leaving the river. 

2) Their growth in the sea and the duration of their sojourn there. 

3) The migrations of salmon and sea trout with special reference to the question 
as to whether they return to their native river. 

4) The question of the effect of the output of artificially hatched fry on the sub- 
sequent stock of the species. 

The Swedish investigations also had a bearing upon questions of direct 
economic importance. 

The points dealt with by Dr. Rosen with reference to the salmon of Norr- 
botten and Vesterbotten and the sea trout in Upper Norrland were principally 
as follows : — 

1) Age determinations by scale examination. 

2) The duration of the period of life in the river and in the sea. 

3) The growth in fresh and sea water. 

4) Migrations and tiistribution. 

Dr. Rosen also discussed results of similar work in South Sweden and refer- 
red to the investigations of Dr. Alm and himself on the factors concerned in the 
growth of the young (fauna and physical conditions of streams and rivers): on 
the effects of industrial usage of rivers and how far hatchery operations may be 
utilised to obviate these effects: age groups of running salmon from a certain stock 
of liberated fry: relation between good spawning years and subsequent catches 
of running fish: and the relation between growth in the river and in the sea. 

After a general discussion in which reference was made to the salmon questions 
of Finland, Ireland and England, the Meeting agreed upon various recommendations 
which should be laid before the Council for adoption. 

See the Resolutions pag. 40 — 43. 



— 63 — COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - REPORT 
VIII. Meeting of the Southwestern Fishery Committee. 



Rapport. 

Le Sous-Comité pour l'étude de l'entrée de la Manche et du Golfe de Gas- 
cogne, institué à la Séance du 3 Mars 1920 par la Réunion du Conseil International 
de l'exploration de la mer, après deux séances tenues le 3 Mars et le 4 Mars, soumet 
au Bureau du Conseil International les propositions suivantes : ■ — 

Le Sous-Comité comprenant des délégués de la France, de l'Angleterre et 
de l'Irlande, considère que des recherches systématiques sur la pêche doivent être 
entreprises aussitôt que possible pour assurer la protection des poissons comestibles 
à l'entrée de la Manche, dans le Golfe de Gascogne et plus généralement sur le versant 
ouest du plateau continental européen. Cette région est un secteur de recherches 
indiqué par suite de la continuité des formations rocheuses à la fois sur les côtes 
qui la bordent et dans les profondeurs; de plus elle reçoit une branche unique du 
Gulf-Stream qui se divise en face d'Ouessant en plusieurs rameaux se répartissant 
entre la Manche, le Golfe de Gascogne et la mer d'Irlande. Il faut ajouter qu'au 
point de vue biologique ce secteur répond à une réalité naturelle par suite de la 
présence de poissons spéciaux tels que le merlu, le thon, la sardine. 

Le Sous-Comité reconnaît que la région de l'entrée de la Manche en ce qui 
concerne les poissons qui y vivent est de peu d'intérêt pour de nombreux pays 
appartenant au Conseil International. Toutefois les recherches qui portent sur 
les rapports entre les poissons et les organismes vivants qui constituent sa nourriture, 
sur les variations physiochimiques, sont de nature par leur progrès à intéresser 
toutes les nations en tant que problème général de la science océanographique. 

Le Sous-Comité considère que les recherches faites sur l'Hydrographie et 
le plankton dans cette région sont de nature à aider à résoudre la question de la 
circulation de l'eau atlantique qui intéresse tous les pays faisant partie du Conseil 
International. 

Il considère en outre que les recherches faites sur le plankton pourrait être 
complétés dans les mêmes moments par des observations sur les œufs flottants 
dans ces parages, ces dernières observations étant de nature à fournir de précieux 
renseignements notamment sur les bancs de merlus pouvant exister dans la région 
considérée. (Voir le rapport de la Commission A, vol. X des Rapports et Procès- 
Verbaux.) 

En conséquence, le Sous-Comité a fait quelques propositions au Bureau du 
Conseil International, adoptées par le Conseil comme résolutions No. 20 — 23 
pag. 34—35. 




COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - APPENDIX _ 64 — 

IX. Meeting of the Limnological Committee on Friday March 5. 

Dr. Redeke in the chair. 
Present; Messrs. Stanley Gardiner, Iîolt, Farran, Hefford, Ostenfeld, Johansen, 

Järvi, Rosen. 



The Committee considered various problems connected with the fresh water 
fisheries and agreed upon some recommendations to be laid before the Council 
for adoption. 

See the resolutions pag. 42 — 43. 



X. Meeting of the Statistical Committee, held on Wednesday, 3rd March, 1920 

at noon. 

Professor d'Arcy W. Thompson, C. B., F. R. S., in the Chair. 

Present: Dr. Andersson, Mr. J. M. Bottemanne, Mr. Hutchinson, Dr. Järvi, Mr. David, 

T. Jones, C. B. E., Fishery Inspector Rosen, Dr. Russell, Mr. Oscar Sund. 



After some discussion various resolutions were agreed to for submission 
to the Council for approval: — 

See the resolutions pag. 34 — 37. 

(Signed) d'Arcy W. Thompson. 



G. 

APPENDICES. 

Appendix I to Report of joint Meeting. 

Proposals for Discussion at the Hydrographical Section 

of the International Council, 1920. 



Plaice Programme. 

1. Hydrographical contributions to the British Plaice Programme of 1920 
— 21. The programme includes surface and subsurface observations of temperature 
and salinity and possibly the determination of Hydrogen Ion Concentration: the 
most important contribution is the proposal to liberate upwards of 20,000 drift 
bottles, both surface and bottom. The details of these proposals will be submitted 
for discussion. It is desirable to make this investigation on as broad an Inter- 
national basis as possible, commensurate with the complete fulfilment of the Reso- 
lutions. 

Surface Observations. 

2. The elaboration of an intensive surface sahnity and temperature programme 
to extend over the whole area of the North Atlantic Ocean and its tributary waters. 



— 65 — COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - APPENDIX 

Instruments. 

3. Further elaboration of instruments of precision is desirable e. g., Hydro- 
meters, Current Meters, Tidal Gauges. It is suggested that special Investigations 
be shared by individual countries and be reported on at the next Council Meeting. 

Sub-Surface Observations. 

4. Apart from investigations in connection with the Plaice programme. 
Great Britain will not be in a position to undertake subsurface observations during 
the year 1920 — 21, at any rate in the North Sea. 

It is desirable however to discuss the two following propositions for future 
investigation: • — 

(a) To allocate the whole time services of one vessel for one complete year 
to the study of the hydrography and plankton of a chosen section or area to measure 
the fluctuations of the inflow of Atlantic water into the Northern North Sea. 

(b) To allocate the whole time services of one vessel for one complete year 
to the study of the hydrography and plankton of the area off the mouth of the 
English Channel to include the Hake Grounds and the Areas of the pelagic fisheries. 
The scheme proposed will be shown on a Chart. 

Both these schemes are to be regarded as preliminary to the possible laying 
down of a comprehensive programme for a period of years. 

It is considered desirable to invite France to join with Ireland and England 
in a joint programme for the investigation of the S.W. Area so that a preliminary 
survey may be made of the area concerned at an early date. 

Current Measurements. 

5. A discussion will be invited as to the value of the methods so far used 
and the results of the current measurements hitherto obtained by the International 
Council. If agreed, a resolution can be framed that the Bureau should undertake 
a critical examination of existing material as a guide to further co-operation. 

The following proposal is submitted for discussion : — 
"It is desirable that intensive current measurements lasting at least a full 
year be carried out with the object of tracing the monthly fluctuations of the 
Resultant current of the Channel Stream into the Flemish Bight, and that 
the Bureau be asked to report upon these observations." 

A memorandum deahng with some preliminary results will be circulated 
for the consideration of the Section. 

The Hydrographical Bulletin. 

6. It is suggested that considerable cost of printing would be saved by 
adopting the principle of printing in detail only those surface observations of sahnity 
and temperature which form part of a vertical series of sub-surface observations. 

9 



COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - APPENDIX — 66 ^ 

It is recommended that all surface routes to be sampled by each country- 
be specified in the Hydrographical Resolutions, that the countries concerned should 
send duplicate copies of all observations to the Bureau for permanent record, 
that the Bureau should publish in the Hydrographical Bulletin a precis of the 
number of samples received for each route, and that the Bureau should be recom- 
mended to prepare for each International Meeting a summary showing the extent 
to which each resolution has been carried out by each participating country. 

It is submitted that the presentation of the surface data in the form of 
monthly charts in the Hydrographical Bulletin is a matter for discussion. 

(Signed) E. C. Jee. 

Appendix II. 

Hydrographical Memorandum for consideration at Hydrographical Section, 

International Council, 1920. 



Current Measurements. 

In considering the results of Mr. Edser's Statistical examination of certain 
current measurements appended hereto the following factors must be reviewed: — 

The instruments used and their probable errors of measurement; the nature 
of the observers; the conditions under which the instruments were employed; the 
nature of the sea area in which the observations were made. 

The instruments employed on the English line were Ekman Meters; on 
Lightships the Jacobsen Meter was used. Both meters are fair weather instruments 
and cannot be employed in rough weather. It would be quite impossible to ensure 
hourly observations except in fair weather and probably few observations could 
be taken just when they would be most valuable i. e., in the winter months. 

All Ekman Meter observations were taken by skilled observers. The smoothing 
necessary to get tidal ellipses must therefore be attributed to unperiodic swirls 
of water influenced by meter experimental errors and the motion of the vessel. 
The Jacobsen meter observations on the other hand have all been undertaken 
by Lightship crews and although every precaution has been taken to inform the 
observers fully of the method to be employed by demonstration on board ship 
and by supervision of the installation of the meter, errors have undoubtedly crept 
in which has necessitated extensive smoothing of the observations. It is impossible 
to gauge the influence of this smoothing on the magnitude of the resultant current. 

According to the salinity observations in the English Channel the Atlantic 
water normally makes its influence most felt in November or December. It is there- 
fore at this period that current measurements are most needed to measure the 
influx into the Southern North Sea of high salinity water. With Ekman or Jacobsen 
Meters it would be impossible to undertake the collection of the necessary data. 



— 67 — COUNCIL-MARCH 1920-APPBNDIX 

The existing records, at any rate those of the Varne L. V., may be sub- 
stantially influenced by the presence of sand banks the extent of which influence 
it is impossible to estimate. If at any future date intensive current measurements 
be undertaken to form an estimate of the flooding of the Flemish Bight with high 
salinity water, the following conditions must be satisfied: — 

(1) A position other than the Varne L. V. must be chosen as remote as pos- 
sible from sandbanks. 

(2) The meter must be self-recording and capable of sustained measurements 
for at least 2 months. It should give current velocity and direction at intervals 
not greater than half hourly. 

(3) The point of support of the meter must be well submerged and the meter 
itself should be suspended to give as little "cant" as possible. 

(4) Provision should be made for the simultaneous measurement of vertical 
water movements. 

(5) Observations should be continued over at least one year. 



Hydrographically speaking the waters of the English Channel and the 
Flemish Bight are in the "Doldrums" during the summer season at which period 
the Atlantic current is at minimal strength or ceases to flow. The fact that mea- 
surable results of resultant currents have been obtained under summer conditions 
is evidence of the possibility of securing satisfactory measurements to interpret 
the way in which the highly salt water is projected through the Straits of Dover 
into the Southern North Sea. 

It is possible that an experiment extending over one year will indicate that 
it is only for a brief period during the waxing of the Atlantic Current that current 
measurements have adequate value to warrant repetition year by year as part 
of a general Hydrographical programme. 

(Signed) E. C. Jee. 
25.2.20. 



a. Resultant currents. 
For details and diagrams see [Fishery Investigations, Series III, Vol. IV, Part I, 

1920]. 
A preliminary examination of the current meter data for August 1914 shows 
that they consist mainly of observations worked up into vectors, spread more 
or less irregularly over about 13 hours on consecutive days at stations along the 
English line. The problem is to obtain resultant currents, i. e. drifts for each po- 
sition. 



COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - APPENDIX 



68 



At E 56, 33 readings were made at depths 10 and 65 metres and the cumula- 
tive vectors based upon all the observations worked out at: — 

10 M — S. 87 E, 2.1. cm/sec; at 65 M — N 33 W, 3.2 cm/sec. 
In order to compare with these results and also to bring the time factor more 
definitely into regularity, similar resultants were prepared taking account only 
of observations at hourly intervals. They gave — 

At 10 M — N 30 E, 1.6 cm/sec; at 65 M — N 18 W, 5.2 cm/sec. 

These variations are material, and in order to get a continuous series of 
observations at smaller intervals than 1 hour, it was necessary to devise means 
to interpolate vectors at times when no observation was taken. This was effected 
by plotting separately on a time basis the abscissae and ordinates of all the actual 
observation vectors, fitting curves to the two sets of points and reading off from 
the curves the components of the new vectors. These are marked A in the diagrams 
attached. By means of these curves, vectors at any given moment could be ob- 
tained, and resultants were worked out from the vectors at 1/4 and ^/g hourly inter- 
vals over periods of 12^/2 and 13 hours as far as the material allowed. They were: — 

At 10 metres. 'Starting at 5.45 

^2 hr. intervals covering 12^/2 hrs. N42E 

1.8 
V4 - — — — N37E 

1.9 

— — 13 hrs. N73E 

1.7 

— — — N64E 

1.7 



V 



6 


6.15 


6.30 


6.45 


7 


N33E 


N45E 


N35E 


N50E 


N40E 


2.1 


1.6 


2.0 


1.5 


1.7 


N39E 


N40E 


N42E 


N45E 




1.9 


1.8 


1.7 


1.6 




N54E 


N66E 


N45E 






1.8 


1.5 


1.8 






N59E 


N55E 








1.7 


1.6 









At 65 metres Starting at 6 6.15 6.30 6.46 

Vs hrs.intervals covering I2V2 hrs. N47W 5.1 N46W 4.5 N45W 4.6 N45W 4.2 

N46W 4.9 N46W 4.6 N45W 4.4 

N40W 4.4 N39W 4.2 N37W 4.3 



V4 



13 hrs. 



N39W 4.3 N38W 4.3 



These results differ materially from those previously found, and they show 
considerable variations according to whether 12^/2 or 13 hours observations are 
compounded. In addition when the duration of the period is uniform, but the 
starting point is shifted, fairly material differences apparently in a definite direc- 
tion are noticeable. This might have been due to faulty fitting of the curves at 
the ends of the series, and in order to test this point, a series covering 24 hours, 
taken at station H 2 off the Dutch coast, was chosen and resultant vectors were 
prepared so that each was compounded for a period commencing ^/g hour later 
than the previous one . The results so found varied as follows : — . 



— 69 — COUNCIL -MARCH 1920 -APPENDIX 

For 12 hr. periods ^/g hr. observations — Range of directions over 46°; speed from 

71/2 to 15 cm/sec. 
For 12^/2 hr. periods ^/g hr. observations ■ — Range of directions over 59°; speed 

from 6Y2 to 14 cm/sec. 
For 13 hr. periods ^/g hr. observations ■ — Range of directions over 70°; speed from 

4^/4 to 14 cm/sec. 
The terminal points have been plotted and are marked B on attached diagrams. 
A series covering from the evening of 1st August to the afternoon of the 
4th August 1913, taken hourly, at the Varne lightship was next taken and resul- 
tant vectors were prepared for series of 12, 12^/^, 13, 25, and 37^2 hours at -/g 
hourly intervals. 

These gave the following variations: — 
For 12 hr. periods. Range of direction 137°. Speed range 12.5 cm/sec. from 3.1 

to 15.6 
For 12^2 hr. periods. Range of direction 111°. Speed range 12.6 cm/sec. from 2.6 

to 15.2 
For 13 hr. periods. Range of direction 106°. Speed range 14.5 cm/sec. from 1.9 

to 16.4 
For 25 hr. periods. Range of direction 37°. Speed range 5.9 cm/sec. from 3.7 to 9.6 
For 37^/2 hr. periods. Range of direction 34°. Speed range 2.3 cm/sec. from 5.5 

to 7.8. 
It is interesting to note that for the full 2 weeks observations of which these are 
a portion the resultant is given as about N 60 E, 4 cm/sec. whereas over the 3 
tides taken it would appear to be between E and S 60 E and from 5^2 to 7^/4 cm/sec. 
This rather points to some influence which was dominant at some considerable 
portion of the remainder of the 2 weeks period. 

Turning now to the diagrams marked B for positions H 2 and Varne it will 
be seen that there is a tendency for the consecutive resultants to swing more or 
less in a spiral, but I am unable to account for this. It seems obvious that in working 
up resultants, just a full tide period should be taken, but as this period is variable, 
dependent upon moon, sun and wind, the latter cause makes it impossible to deter- 
mine accurately the variabihty. Three periods, 12, 12^/2 and 13 hours, were chosen 
and of the patterns made the 12^/2 is perhaps the most regular, but the progressive 
spiral movement is distinctly traceable in all of them and even in the 25 and 37^/2 
hour periods. It seems probable, however, that after eliminating the swing of the 
tide the resultant tide is still in the nature of a spiral and if that is so it follows 
that any series of observations which does not allow for the waxing and waning 
of the spiral would be subject to very large probable errors. In order to determine 
the dimensions of the spiral it would be necessary to have continuous observations 
at a fixed spot for much longer periods. 

To sum up, the resultant tides based upon a single day's observations are 



COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - APPENDIX — 70 — 

quite valueless as they are subject to very great probable errors owing to the fact 
that the resultant tide is not a steady drift in a definite direction, but is subject 
to great alterations both in direction and also in speed, even after the elliptical 
movement of the daily tide has been eliminated. It is possible that if a fortnight's 
observations were worked up in a similar manner, the law governing this variation 
of the resultant tides might be apparent, but I am inchned to the belief that before 
we shall be able to do anything towards discovering the law a continuous series 
of observations taken on the same spot throughout the year is essential. 

(Signed) T. Edser. 26.11.1919. 



b. Resultant currents. 

Details and diagrams to be published in a forthcoming volume of [Fishery in 

vestigations. Series III, Vol. 11, Part. II, 1920]. 

From work already done it has been established that as a result of working 
up resultant currents or drifts by a process of smoothing the curves of the N/S 
and E/W componerls of actual observations separately, and reading off from 
the smoothed curves the components at ^/g hourly intervals, and compounding 
them for periods of 12, 12^/2 and 13 hours, the resultant currents of each period 
show very material differences, and apparently irregular variations occur according 
to the time of commencement of the period. Even such a short difference as half 
an hour shows frequently a considerable alteration in the resultant. 

In order to throw further light upon this subject, a set of observations 
covering 14 days taken at the Varne lightship in August 1913 was examined, 
and for the tide at 10 m depth resultants covering various periods were compounded. 
The dots on the attached diagrams, which are all prepared on the same scale, show 
the ends of the vectors corresponding to these resultants. Each series was prepared 
by commencing at 12 midday on 31st July and compounding half hourly vectors 
to the end of the period for the first resultant. The next would commence at 12.30 
p. m. on 31st July and extend ^/g hour later than the end of the previous period 
and so on. 

Figure 1. shows the field covered by the 673 resultants of 12^2 hour periods 
and from it it will be seen that the variation possible during the fortnight was 
from practically nil to 25 cm/sec for speed and over the whole 360° for direction. 

Figure 2 gives similar information for 623 periods of 25 hours, the range 
being from nil to 17 cm/sec and 360°. 

Figure 3 shows 550 periods of 74 hours each the range being from nil to 
121/2 cm/sec and practically 180°. 

Figure 4 shows 549 periods of 74^/2 hours the range being from nil to 12 cm/sec 
and 180°. 



— 71 — COUNCIL-MARCH 1920- APPENDIX 

Figure 5 shows 548 periods of 95 hours the range being from nil to 12 cm/sec 
and 150°. 

Figure 6 shows 48 periods of 325 hours the range being from 2.9 to 3.7 cm/sec 
and 17° in direction. 

A consideration of Figure 1 shows that any resultant based upon observa- 
tions over 12^2 hours i. e. 1 tide period will be liable to such large errors that it 
must be valueless ; in fact the drift so determined may bear no relation whatever 
to the general drift. 

In Figure 2 where 25 hours' observations are shown i. e. 2 tidal periods the 
pattern is tending towards a strip whose long axis is somewhat to the E. of the 
N/S line but here again any single resultant is subject to such large errors as to 
be valueless. 

In Figures 3 — 5 the periods combined for the resultants are 74, 74^2 and 
75 hours respectively, approximately around 6 tidal periods, but from the similarity 
of the patterns produced it would seem that such slight variations on the time 
period do not materially affect the resultants. In these 3 figures there is a distinct 
tendency for the pattern to take the form of a Hne inclined towards the N.W. From 
this it would be inferred that the drift at the Varne was generally easterly with 
very considerable N. and S. deflections. Any single resultant based upon these 
periods is not trustworthy. 

In each of these figures well over 500 reusltants with '■j^ hour intervals 
between their commending points have been calculated, but in Figure 6 the period 
taken was 325 hours, approximately equal to 26 tidal periods, and consequently 
the number of resultants is reduced to 48. The pattern now is distinctly easterly, 
but there are not sufficient points to determine what form it is tending towards. 
A single resultant based on this period would seem to be of general value. 

It must however be remembered that in increasing the period dealt with, 
the effect is to smooth out the shorter pulsations of the drift, and it is possible 
that if the original duration of the experiment had been lengthened, the pattern 
produced by a larger number of resultants, than are here shown might have had 
a greater surface. This however is dependent upon possible fluctuations of longer 
cycle than can be detected in 2 week's observations. 

(Signed) T. Edser. 24.2.20. 



Appendix III to Plankton Section. 
"The Physico-Chemical Conditions underlying Life in the Sea." 

By Professor Stanley Gardiner. 



The ultimate object of the research is to obtain a knowledge of the optimum 
conditions of growth, reproduction and distribution of the various economic species 
of marine animals. 



COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - APPENDIX — 72 — 

The economic species is the final link in a chain of metabolism from the ulti- 
mate foodstuffs and energy of sunlight and each link has to be considered under 
two heads : — 

1) the relation of the organism to sea-water, and 

2) the relation of the organism to other organisms. 

1) The sea-water contains the ultimate foodstuffs (ammonia, nitrate, carbon 
dioxide, oxygen, phosphates, inorganic ions such as Na', R', Ca", Mg", Cl', S04" 
etc.), in respect to which we require to know how they are taken up under optimum 
conditions. The problem, however, is not limited to this, for inorganic ions play 
an essential role in vital processes apart from their necessity in the chemical compo- 
sition of tissues. Indeed it would appear that many organisms can only maintain 
their normal conditions when the balance between the various ions lies between 
narrow limits. The growth of such organisms depends on a factor which has seeming- 
ly nothing whatever to do with the internal metabolism of the "cells." 

The main problem hence divides further into, 

A) the relation of plant life to the ultimate food stuffs, 

B) the relation of every link in the chain to the ions of sea-water. 

Under the latter head falls the consideration of the optimum conditions for 
fertilisation, growth and distribution. 

The consideration of the ultimate food stuffs is important. Are they taken 
up by plants alone ? The role of bacteria will require careful consideration. The 
possibilities suggested by the work of Putter and others as to sea-water containing 
soluble food substances (animo-acids, etc.) demands the most careful investigation. 

2) Every organism is a link on some chain leading to economic species. 
Fishery naturalists are now studying the main organisms, their metabolism, growth, 
reproduction and distribution. 

The following heads may be suggested in the research : ■ — 

(I) Pure Physical chemistry of sea-water. 
How do such conditions as temperature, depth, nature of the bottom, currents, 
lack or abundance of plant or animal life etc. change the constituents of sea-water ? 
Why and how do they act? A study of the various factors, the adjustment of which 
produced the physico-chemical equilibrium in the sea, is wanted in the hope of get- 
ting an adequate picture of this equilibrium. 

(II) Applied physical chemistry of sea-water. 
Much research requires the use of sea-water containing other chemicals 
and it is necessary to know exactly how these solutions differ from sea-water if the 
conclusions from this research are to be of value. 



— 73 — COUNCIL-MARCH 1920-APPENDIX 

(III) Biochemistry. 

A special point, besides the constitution of tissues, is the estimation of organic 
matter in solution. 

(IV) Experimental Biology, based on the foregoing. The investigation 
of as many functions as possible in respect to their optimum conditions — from egg 
to sexual adult. Special problems would be as follows: 

Fertihsation ■ — conditions (Oxygen, OH) necessary for maturation, activity 
of sperm, entrance spermatozoa, etc. 

Development — conditions (OH, etc.) necessary tor segmentation. 

Growth — foodstuffs, metabolism, vitamines, etc. 

Distribution, General Vitality, etc. (Much information would in many pro- 
blems be required from hydrography, statistics, etc.). 



Appendix IV to the Plaice Committee. 



II. Outline of the Investigations bearing on the Plaice Fisheries which the Three 

Fishery Departments of the United Kingdom undertake to carry 

out in the 12 months commencing April 1st, 1920. 



(I). Work undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. 
(1) Skeleton Programme of Sea Work for Research Vessel. April 

1920— March 1921. 
April. Trawling (probable remainder also of trawling at fixed Stations in 

March). 
May. Otolith lines from Leman to Haaks; 

Transplantation from Dutch coast to S. W. Patch. 
June. Marking at Haaks. Trawling at fixed stations, Haaks, Leman, 

Flamboro' off Sandettie). 

Invertebrate gear tested etc., on Leman ground. 
July. Trawling. 

August. Marking on Leman Ground. 

September. Otolith lines as May. Fixed trawling stations. 
October. (Remainder of trawling at fixed stations). Trawling probably. 
November. Trawling. 
December. Trawling at fixed stations. 

Egg cruise in S. Bight. 
January. Egg cruises in S. Bight. 

Marking at Sandettie. 

Current work on spawning ground. 

10 



COUNCIL-MARCH 1920- APPENDIX — 74 — 

February. Egg cruise in S. Bight. 

Egg cruise marking on Flamboro' off. 
Current work on spawning ground. 
March. Egg cruises on Flamboro' . ofî. 

Trawhng at fixed stations. 

(Signed) .J. 0. Borlet. 
(2) Fuller Particulars as to statistics. 
The English statistics of demersal fish from the North Sea will be tabulated 
in squares measuring 1° of longitude by ^1." latitude. 

It is important that a Naturalist should study month by month the landings 
of plaice from all the fishing grounds, paying particular attention to the landings 
from the proposed closed areas on the Danish and Dutch coasts, vith a view to 
estimating what loss of catch, not only of plaice, but of other fish, would ensue to 
English fishing vessels if these areas were closed. 

(Signed) E. S. Russell. 

(3) Fuller particulars as to ichthyometrics. 

(A) It will be necessary to obtain an accurate record of the size of the plaice 
caught on the principal fishing grounds in the North Sea in order that the effect of 
any proposed size limit may be estimated. A staff of ten measurers is at present 
engaged in ichthyometric work on plaice, haddock, and cod. It is proposed to 
retain this number during next financial year. The staff will be concentrated further 
south than in 1919, in order to give special attention to the plaice. 

(B) As little or no information exists as to the size of the plaice landed at 
the smaller "inshore" ports, particularly on the South and West Coasts, and as these 
ports might be very seriously affected by the imposition of say a 25 cm limit, it 
is proposed to employ additional measurers to measure the fish at selected inshore 
ports. 

(Signed) E. S. Russell. 

(4) Fuller particulars as to plaice marking and transplantation. 

On each of the occasions indicated in the skeleton programme it is intended 
to mark 1,000 plaice. Should Holland be in a position to undertake the Haaks 
experiment it is desirable that she should do so. 

The marking is desired chiefly for a direct estimate of the intensity of fishing, 
but usual information as to growth rate and migration would be obtained from the 
records. The transplantation experiment is' intended to determine whether the 
alteration in the fish population during the last 5 years has affected the peculiar 
acceleration of growth before the war effected by transplantation to the Dogger 
Bank. , 

(Signed) J. 0. Borley. 



— 75 — COUNCIL^MARCH1920-APPENDIX 

(5) Fuller particulars of work on plaice eggs. 
Southern Bight. 40 stations between Swarte Bank and Dover, all but 
3 Haaks or southward. Chart will be produced. 

Flamborough Off. 33 stations between Shields and Swarte Bank, Eng- 
lish Coast and Dogger. Chart will be produced. 

Estimating halt hour per station and 8 knots, each cruise is allowed 5 days. 
Southern Bight. 5 days between December 15th and 31st. 
5 — — January 1st and 15th. 
5 — - — 15th and 81st. 

5 • — — February 1st and 15th. 
Flamborough Off. 5 days between February 1st and 15th. 
5 — — — 15th and 29th. 

5 — — March 1st and 15th. 
At each station, 2 hauls with egg-net, also surface temperature and sample. 

(Signed) H. J. Buchanan Wollaston. 
Mr. Wollaston agreed that certain stations out of those chosen should have 
precedence in any case of difficulty in completing the work. 

(6) Fuller particulars of hydrographie work in connection with plaice. 
(A). Drift Bottle Operations. 

(a) During spawning season from mid-December to end-April = 140 days, 
from selected Lightships: 4200 surface and 4200 bottom drifters. 

(b) Throughout the year from Lightships at key positions. 4775 bottom 
drifters and 9550 surface drifters = 14325 drifters. 

(c) Flamborough — Off Grounds. 

1,000 drifters, surface and bottom in equal numbers, during the spawning season. 

(B) Surface salinity and temperature. 

The Research Ship to take surface temperatures and water samples at 
hourly intervals when at sea. 

Lines of surface samples across the North Sea will also be arranged on com- 
mercial vessels as supplementary to the above. A number of Lightships will also 
be engaged in surface sampling on both sides of the North Sea. 

(C) Sub-surface salinity and temperature. 

The Research Ship will examine the vertical distribution of sahnity and 
temperature : ■ — • 

(a) at all Hensen net Stations. 

(b) at all Trawling Stations. 

(Signed) E. C Jee. 
■ 10* 



COUNCIL-MARCH 1920-APPBNDIX — 76 — 

(II). Programme of researches on the plaice, proposed to be undertaken by the Fishery 
Board for Scotland, as arranged, at the departmental meetings in London, 

February 1920. 

(1) Statistics. 

(a) The Statistics of the Fish landed by Trawlers. Monthly and annual 
tables and charts to be prepared, with the usual particulars, showing the catch 
(and the average per 100 hours' fishing) of the various market classes, the precise 
place of capture to be marked on the charts. 

(b) The statistics for all marketable fishes, as well as plaice, relating to the 
North Sea, to be tabulated in quarter squares, after the new English system, i. e., 
bounded by 1° of Long., and 1/2° of Lat. 

(2) Ichthyometry. 

(a) Plaice, from the North Sea grounds in particular, to be measured in as 
large numbers as possible (the usual particulars of place of capture, etc., being 
procured) at Aberdeen, and if possible at Granton; the average weights to be as- 
certained and the condition as to spawning, of males and females, recorded. Similar 
information to be obtained at some ports in the Moray Firth and the Firth of Clyde, 
to be selected later. 

(b) The measurements by Fish Measurers to be continued on board trawlers, 
with records as to the spawning males and females. 

(3) Work of Research Vessels. 

In addition to the trawling observations at the usual stations (including 
those in the Firth of Clyde), comprising the measurement of all the plaice caught, 
with records of the sex and sexual condition, it is proposed that the following work 
should be done: ■ — 

(a) Age determination by the otolith method, on a certain proportion of the 
plaice caught. 

(b) Marking Experiments, to an extent, and that such places and times, as 
may be arranged with the English Department. 

(c) Drift-bottles experiments, surface and bottom, especially on spawning 
areas, also to be arranged later in detail. 

(d) The collection of the pelagic eggs in certain areas, as the Moray Firth, 
the East Coast and the Firth of Forth. ' 

All the above to be done according to uniform methods and similar apparatus 
■ — tow-nets, drift-bottles, and fish-marks. 

(Signed) T. Wemys Fulton. 
Aberdeen, 25th February 1920. 



— 77 — COUNCIL-MARCH 1920-APPBNDIX 

(III). S.S.Helga Programme of scientific work to be done hy the Irish Department 
(subject to modification if opportunities for co-operation with other countries should arise). 
March 18 — 30. Trawling in S. W. Bays, (if gear is ready.) 
April 12—17. Danish Seine Investigation, Dundrum Bay. 
May 3 — 22. Danish Seine, E. coast. 

Physical Observations, E. & S. W. coast. 

Trawhng S. coast & S. W. Bays. 

Plankton Investigation on Mackerel grounds. 

Midwater trawling with Otter Trawl. 
June Trawling on numbered sections, Dublin and Skerries Bays. 

Danish Seine, E. coast. 
July Trawling, Donegal Bay. 

August Physical Observations on inshore stations E. & S. W. coast. 

Trawling on S. coast and in Clew Bay, Cleggan and Blacksod. 

Danish Seine, E. coast. 
September Trawling, Galway Bay. 

October. E. coast Trawling and Danish Seine fishing. 

November. Physical Observations on inshore stations. E. & S. W. coast. 

Dates to be fixed in connection with Helga's Patrol duties. 



Appendix V to the Herring Committee. 



Investigations in the Norwegian Coastal Waters. 



The plans for the State investigation in the Norwegian coastal waters in 
1920 include the following items: 



■'o 



A. Biological statistics regarding the Cod and Herring fisheries. 
These researches embrace especially investigations by means of samples 
from the fishermens catches of cod, saithe and haddock, and of large herrings and 
spring herrings. The work will have the character of a larger scale continuation 



of work done before and during the war. 



COUNCIL-MARCH 1920-APPENDIX — 78 — 

The investigations regarding the Cod Fisheries have included observations 
on: the composition in point of size, age and growth of the spawning cod and the 
Finmark spring (young) cod, its weight and "quahties" (amount of liver, weight 
etc.), and similarly for saithe and haddock as far as conditions have permitted. 
A certain amount of data concerning morphological characters have also been 
procured. 

In the case of the Herring investigations have, apart from observations 
as to length, weight, sex, maturity, age and growth, also in some cases included 
observations on number of vertebrae and similar morphological characters. 



B. Special Investigations concerning Herring fry, small Herrings 

and fat Herrings. 

This work was planned in order to procure a closer knowledge than is at 
present at hand concerning the natural history of the Norwegian herring as far 
as the younger stages are concerned. The investigations will partly consist in an 
analysis of the fishermen's catches (Biological Statistics) partly in investigations 
at sea by means of the new vessel which is going to be built for the marine in- 
vestigations of the State. The work at sea will, to a large part, consist in a perio- 
dically reiterated exploration of a limited set of fjord s in Northern Norway, especially 
regarding the occurrence of herring and their food and the physical conditions of 
the waters. The intention is to get observations which may serve to elucidate how 
a fjord gets its population of young herrings renewed — i. e. if a yearly recruiting 
is brought about by an influx from outside of all the age groups in question (1 — 5 
years old fish) or whether it is effected by influx of very young herrings only. It is 
hoped that the solution of this question may be approached by a comparative 
analysis of samples, partly from the fishermen's catches, partly by catches made 
by the research vessel within and outside the fjords. Investigations as to plankton 
and hydrography will be executed in connection with the work referred to. 



C. Investigations on the Biology of the Sprat. 

"De Norske Hermetikfabrikanters Landsforening" (Norwegian Canners 
National Association) has expressed its willingness to place at the disposal of the 
Government a suitable vessel and accommodation for a laboratory in Stavanger 
for investigations on the Biology of the sprat, to be carried out by the Norwegian 
Government. 

Prehminary investigations will be initiated in 1920, mainly in the Ryfylke 
fjords, and will be carried on as a continuation of the work done during the years 



— 79 — COUNCIL-MARCH 1920-APPENDIX 

1908 — 10 about which a report has been prepared by Oscar Sund in 1910*). Ob- 
servations as to age, size, and sexual development will be gathered, relating to the 
commercial catches, and fishery experiments with different sorts of gear will be 
carried out with the object of creating a technique suitable for obtaining samples 
for scientific examination. 

It is presumed that investigations on the sprat will be continued from year 
to year. 

D. Investigations in connection with the work at Floedeviken sea 

fish hatchery. 
At the Floedeviken Hatchery, belonging now to the Norwegian Government, 
the following work will be done apart from hatching of cod eggs (according to the 
budget proposed by the director, Mr. Dannevig, for the financial term July 1920 
to June 1921. 

1. Lobster culture experiments and investigations. 

2. Young fish investigations at the south coast of Norway (presumably in con- 
nection with the liberation of artificially hatched cod eggs.) 

3. Researches as to age of fish at the south coast of Norway. 

E. Work relating to the methods. 

Special researches will be carried out in order to develop further the tech- 
nique of age estimates and growth measurements. 

Owing to certain pecularities in the age distribution of the stock of. grown 
herring belonging to the Norwegian tribe, the samples of herring scales collected 
during a series of years are especially suited for the elucidation of certain details 
in regard to the errors involved in the age estimates and growth calculations. 

During the coming year these questions will be subjected to a closer analysis, 
and at the same time attempts will be made to obtain a better samphng of the 
observations, based upon the experiences made during the last seasons with respect 
to the stability of the age distribution of the different samples. 



Appendix VI to the Protocol of the Herring Committee. 

To the Delegates of the international Council for the Exploration of the Sea. 

(By Dr. Andersson, Stockholm). 



The investigations carried out in recent years with respect to the herring 
have yielded results that at all events give some indication of the direction in which 

*) Unders0gelser o\er Brislingen i Norske Farvande. Aarsberetning vedk. Norges Fiskerier 
for 1910. . • 



COUNCIL-MAECH1920-APPENDIX — 80 — 

we ought to look to discover the cause of the great variations occurring from time 
to time in the harvest of the herring fishery pursued by the inhabitants of various 
countries, it being apparently probable that they are connected with the great 
variations in the numerical strength of the year classes of herring. 

The idea that formerly prevailed, however, was that the variations in thé 
catches of herrings from time to time were due to the migrations of the fish. It 
was maintained that, when the supply of fish off one particular line of coast was 
exhausted, the explanation was that the herrings had migrated from that neigh- 
bourhood to another and that the yield of fish in the latter locality was thereby 
proportionately increased. In that way periods of plentiful yield of fish were sup- 
posed to have occurred alternately off various coasts, for instance the West Coasts 
of Norway and Sweden. 

It would seem to be a matter of great interest to endeavour to ascertain 
for certain periods what actual variations have occurred in past times with regard 
to the 3deld of herrings secured by the fishermen of those various countries bordering 
on the North Sea and adjacent waters that carry on a herring fishery on at any rate 
large scale. It is evident that light upon that point would furnish valuable material 
for solving the problem of the causes of the variations in the harvests yielded by 
the herring fishery. 

Now as this question of the herring fishery and its variations may be looked 
upon as one of the principal subjects of inquiry for those engaged in the Inter- 
national Fishery Investigations, it is earnestly to be wished that the International 
Council for the exploration of the sea should decide upon preparing a Statistical 
Abstract of the Herring Fishery as pursued in times past by the inhabitants of 
those countries bordering on the North Sea and adjacent waters that have under- 
taken to participate in the international fishery investigations. In certain of those 
countries a satisfactory series of statistics in all probability already exists, while 
in others it will doubtless be a matter of difficulty to procure any very complete 
or reliable figures, at any rate for any length of time back. Even in those cases, 
however, it will probably be possible to ascertain the periods during which herring 
fishing was carried on, even if statements as to the. volume of the annual catches 
are not available. 

The statements actually existing in the publications of the various countries 
are, it may be feared, somewhat inaccessible, and hence for that reason alone, 
there would seem to be good cause for collecting the figures relating to the question 
in a publication. 

As regards the length of time that the statistics given in a publication of 
the kind indicated should embrace, that would probably have to depend on the 
ease or otherwise with which moderately reliable data were obtainable respecting 
the herring fishery in former days. Doubtless experience in that respect would 



— 81 — COUNCIL -MARCH 1920 -APPENDIX 

differ in different countries. A decision on the point would have to be arrived at 
by the Council. 

Thus we take the liberty of suggesting that the Council should take up 
this question for consideration. 

(Signed) K. A. Andersson. 



Appendix VII. 

Report on the Eel Investigations. 
(By the Danish Commission). 



Since the last Report on Eel Investigations (Second Report on Eel 
Investigations, Vol. XXIIl Rapp. et Procès-Verbaux, December 1915), a large 
amount of material has been collected in order to elucidate the age and growth 
of the fresh water eel (Anguilla vulgaris). This material is till now only partly 
examined. 

Moreover, .investigations of the occurrence of the eel larvae in the Atlantic 
have been continued from various Danish vessels of the Royal Navy as well as 
of the commercial fleet. A report (Stations in the Atlantic 1911^ — 1915), with a 
map, gives the situation of the stations. Dr. Schmidt's publication ("On the early 
larval stages of the Fresh-water Eels (Anguilla vulgaris)") has been based on 
these observations. It gives the series of development of the larvae of the Euro- 
pean and American Eel. From this and the accompanying plates it will be seen 
that we have succeeded in tracing the development of these two species so far 
back as to be able now to place before you a complete series of the development 
of the eel from the size of 8 — 9 m/m to the full grown larvae of 75 m/m and their 
metamorphosis stages to elvers. 

Of this new material, collected from Merchant ships, however, till now only 
the description of the developmental history and the aspect of the larvae has been 
published. A more detailed report regarding the appearance of the larvae in the 
Atlantic and conclusions as to the destination of the breeding places of the eel 
has been deferred till the results of a new Atlantic expedition are to hand. 

The object of this expedition is to carry out a systematic oceanographical 
research of the North Atlantic, with special regard to hydrographical as well as 
biological research of the various water layers from the surface to the bottom. 
The research of the bottom fauna will only be held in second rank. 

Originally our idea was to carry out the expedition as a continual cruise 
of one year's duration. Various circumstances, however, have entailed the desira- 

11 



COUNCIL-MARCH 1920-APPENDIX — 82 — 

bility of doing it in two cruises, the first one to be started in this spring from Gi- 
braltar as a transatlantic cruise of three months' duration, and mainly of prepara- 
tory and reconnoitring nature. Various biological problems will be dealt with, 
and care will be taken to find out the most adequate form and size of the imple- 
ments to be used on the main cruise. 

Based on the results of the first minor cruise, the routes of the main cruise 
will be finally laid. This cruise is expected to be started in 1921. The lines to be 
explored are thought to be laid with the object of having the scheme carried out 
in several sections of the large anticyclonic current of the North Atlantic, the 
sections radiating from a centre situated in about the middle of the Sargasso 
Sea. Our object will then be to procure a complete figure, physico-chemical as 
well as biological investigations being made in close connection with the hydro- 
graphical. A staff of older and younger scientists and experts are prepared to take 
part in the expedition, which will be given a character as versatile as possible. 
The scientists will try to examine the material on board, and will not be restricted 
to collect material, as on several previous expeditions. The expedition is expected 
to be carried through in one year. 

After this Report had been given Mr. Maurice proposed that Resolution 10 
of the Procès-Verbaux of 1912, Volume 15, page 62, be confirmed in respect of 
the present year, and that the programme be carried out in the countries con- 
cerned as far as present circumstances permit. 

This was agreed to. 

See the resolution pag. 40 — 41. 



Appendix VIII. 

Regarding an International Size-limit etc. for the Plaice in the North Sea, the 

Skagerak, and the Kattegat. 
Bv C. F.Drechsel and A. C. Johansen. 



At the meeting of neutral delegates of the International Council, in Copenhagen, 
in May 1918, the General Secretary placed before the delegates a letter in which it was 
stated that, before the present war, the scientific fishery experts of the countries 
participating in the international investigation had come to the result that the intense 
fishery in the North Sea had rather seriously affected thestockof several species of food 
fishes in the North Sea and adjacent waters. Indications of so-called overfishing had 
occurred, as, for instance, evidences of an increased preponderance of young and small 
fishes over the older and larger ones and the absolute scarcity of large and bid in- 
dividuals. 



— 83 — COUNCIL-MARCH 1920-APPENDIX 

In view thereof it was urged that, immediately after the war, it would be ne- 
cessary to resume international scientific investigations in the North Sea and adjacent 
waters. A proposition to this eiïect was unanimously adopted by the meeting, and 
it was resolved to send copies of this proposition to all Delegates of the Council, 
requesting a reply after consultation with their respective Governments. 

From Holland and Denmark replies have been received to the effect that these 
countries are prepared to continue the said investigations during and after the war. 

The aforesaid view as to the reduction of the stock of fish in the North Sea 
was based upon elaborate investigations carried on during several years by the par- 
ticipating countries, and in particular by those bordering on the North Sea. 

The results were laid down in reports from the various countries interested in 
the Plaice fishery in the North Sea, and were assembled in a "General Report" by 
Professor Heincke, of which, until now, a "prehminary brief summary" and the "first 
part" of the main report have appeared (in Vol. XVI. and Vol. XVII. A, respectively, 
of Rapports et Procès-Verbaux. Cons. perm, internat, pour l'exploration de la mer). 

Heincke sums up the main results of the plaice investigations in the following 
way: (Rapports et Procès-Verb. Vol. XVI., 1913, p. 56). 

"1. It is very probable that the density of the plaice shoals of the North 
Sea has, with the introduction of intensive trawl fishing, remarkably decreased, 
the absolute size of the plaice stock being also thereby reduced. 

"2. The reduction in the stock of plaice has not affected all size-classes in 
equal degree, but chiefly the larger and older plaice. This is shown in the catches 
and landings by a relative decrease in weight and number of the large plaice and 
increase of the small, as well as in the reduced average size of the plaice. The larger 
and older males especially have decreased greatly in numbers, and the point of 
intersection of the curves of frequency of the sexes has fallen to a lower length." 

Regarding the question of international protective measures, Prof. Heincke 
arrives at the following conclusion (Rapports et Procès-Verb. Vol. XVI. p. 67): 

"These results of our investigations seem to indicate that a really effective 
protection against the enormous, and for the most part useless destruction of the 
young of the plaice by the large steam and sailing trawlers can only be attained by 
means of an international size-limit of 25 to 26 cm. Such size-limit is therefore 
extremely desirable, and an endeavour must in any case be made 
to introduce same. On the other hand, it is impossible to overlook the fact that 
the introduction of so high a size-limit to be enforced in all the North Sea countries, 
would in the first instance be productive of so heavy a loss to the plaice fishery of 
certain countries, e. g., Germany and Holland, that these fisheries would be danger- 
ously injured, and their very existence, upon present lines, seriously threatened. 
In the interest of these fisheries it would be desirable, in the general opinion, to fix 
for them at first — during a certain period of transition' — a lower size-limit. As the 

11* 



COUNCIL-MAKCH1920~APPENDIX — 84 — 

fisheries with which we are here concerned bring a great part of their plaice to market 
alive, and in order to avoid, as far as possible, the difficulties which must arise, 
with locally varying size-limits, in connection with the enforcement of same, and the 
really effective protection of the young plaice, it would be advisable to allow such 
lower size-limit only for such plaice as are brought to market alive. Such a size- 
limit for live plaice would perhaps be sufficiently high when fixed at 22 or 23 cm." 
Since the forthcoming of the above cited parts of the "General Report" of 
Professor Heincke, in 1913, a series of pubhcations dealing with the Plaice and 
Plaice-fisheries in the North Sea has appeared. Three of these papers will be briefly 
mentioned here, as they concern the aforesaid main results of Professor Heincke. 
These papers are the following: 

1. D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson : "Observations on the Plaice from the "Gold- 
seeker" Experiments, and from the Statistics of the Aberdeen Market". 

Fishery Board for Scotland. Fifth Report (Northern Area) on Fisher^ 
and Hydrographical Investigations in the North Sea and adjacent Waters. 
1908—1911. 1913. 

2 T. Wemyss Fulton: "On the distribution and seasonal abundance of Flat- 
fishes (Pleuronectidse) in the North Sea and the fluctuations in their abundance 
during the years 1901—1910". — ibid. 

3. A. T. Masterman: "Report on the Plaice Fisheries of the North Sea" (Parts 

I. and II.). Board of Agriculture and Fisheries. Fishery Investigations. Series 

II. ßea Fisheries. Vol. II. No. 1. 1915. 

The results arrived at by Professor D'Arcy Thompson confirm the aforesaid 
results of Professor Heincke. D'Arcy Thompson sums up some of these conclusions 
in the following way (1. c. p. 66, Point 19 and 20). 

"The Aberdeen Statistics show, since 1903, with a few unimportant exceptions, 
a great and steady decrease fronl year to year in the catch of Large and Medium 
Plaice on all the principal fishing grounds. On the other hand, the landings of Small 
and Extra Small Plaice have increased greatly. The total catch of Plaice has 
greatly diminished". 

"In spite of the general expansion of the trawling fishery the total landings 
of Plaice at Aberdeen were less than two thirds as large in 1911 as in 1905. The 
catch of Large Plaice had fallen to nearly a fifth of its amount in 1905, that of 
Medium Plaice to two-thirds, while the landings of Small (including Extra Small) 
Plaice had trebled in amount". 

Also the results arrived at by Dr. Fulton agree with the above cited main con- 
clusions of Prof. Heincke. Fulton writes as follows (1. c. p. 93): . . . "while the large 
plaice and the medium plaice in almost all the squares referred to') have decreased 

') The squares are situated in the northern part of the North Sea. 



— 85 — ■ COUNCIL-MARCH 1920- APPENDIX 

in relation to the other class in the second period [1906 — 1910] compared with 
the first [1901 — 1905] the small plaice have increased in proportion in each of 
them, that which has taken place in square XXIII., off the coast of Aberdeenshire 
being especially noteworthy. 

The statistics above discussed show that the plaice as a species has diminished 
in abundance, or at all events in weight landed per unit of fishing, during the ten 
years over which the statistics extend [1901 — 1910], and this conclusion is in agree- 
ment with the opinions so often and strongly expressed by the practical men". 

Dr. Masterman, in his aforesaid paper, deals especially with English Plaice- 
Statistics for the years 1906 — 1912. He arrives here at the following results (1. c. 
p. 114): 

"In the whole catch for the North Sea there is a reduction of the proportion 
of large plaice from 36.0 per cent, to 19.0 per cent., an increase of medium plaice 
from 25.0 per cent, to 32.6 per cent., and an increase in relative proportion of small 
plaice from 31.5 per cent, to 41.5 per cent. These summary figures are of limited 
application, and an analysis into areas and methods of capture has shown that the 
increase in small plaice on the grounds, both relative and absolute, is much greater 
than this, as the figures are affected by an abandonment of fishing in recent years in 
the chief nursery areas. In any case, it is evident that there has been since 1906 a 
large increase, both relatively to total catch of plaice and absolutely, in the catch of 
small plaice in the North Sea, and a large decrease in that of large plaice. 

As to the causes of this phenomenon, there can be little doubt that the latter 
is due to excessive fishing by man. In other words, the destruction by man is of 
sufficient intensity to reduce materially the probabiHty of fife of the plaice in the 
North Sea; this is shown in the greatest degree on the southern grounds where the 
intensity of fishing is greatest. Whether it can be regarded as in any degree a mis- 
fortune or as endangering the future supply of plaice is a question that need not 
be discussed here". 

It will be seen that Dr. Masterman's results confirm the results of Prof. 
Heincke, as far as the large plaice are concerned. The increase in relative proportion 
of medium plaice, which Masterman has noticed in the period 1906 — 1912, is a very 
noteworthy phenomenon, but it must be remembered, firstly, that an evidence of 
this kind among a great series of observations from various countries stands very 
isolated, secondly — (what Masterman himself regards as a possibility) — that "the 
increase in small and medium plaice may be a natural phenomenon of the same 
nature as the yearly fluctuations which it has been suggested are due to variations 
in the abundance of each year-brood. Certain very favourable physical conditions 
may conduce to the production of a large brood of fish in any one year, and behind 
the fluctuations in these conditions there may be some general cyclic change in 
physical conditions which may have an amplitude of several years. The period of 



COUNCIL- MARCH 1920-APPENDIX ■ —86 — 

1906 — 1912 would, according to this suggestion, be contained within the upward 
phase favourable to plaice propagation, and the gradual increase of young plaice 
may owe its origin to some such phenomenon". (Masterman 1. c. p. 114 — 115). 

It should be mentioned that the Plaice-Committee at the meeting in London, 
in June 1913, unanimously recommended a size-limit for the plaice in the North Sea, 
of 20 cm for the period October 1 to March 31 and of 22 cm from April 1 to Septem- 
ber 30, and that the Council at a meeting in Copenhagen, in September 1913, unani- 
mously accepted the proposal of such a size-limit. 

The strong and continued restriction of the North Sea fishery caused by the 
war has, in all probability, afïected the stock of plaice in the North Sea considerably. 
The evidence from the various countries which have dealt with measurements and 
weighings of plaice during the war seems to show that the relative proportion of 
large plaice has again increased considerably. The plaice and other important flat 
fishes, as well as the haddock, seem to be very abundant and of considerable sizes in 
the North Sea. Even from distant fishing grounds, such as Iceland and the Faroes, the 
abundance of fish is reported to be very large now. 

Very likely, the plaice fishery in the North Sea will before long be carried on 
very intensively and probably more intensively than before the war. 

Now if it is true that the stock of fish has increased and improved during 
the five years of the war, it may also be expected that very soon, and most likely 
before investigations can be made to any great extent, and laws made, the stock 
■of fish will again become seriousty reduced by intense fishing. The Council will then 
have to face the same difficulties as before the war in carrying through effective 
restrictions of the fisheries. 

It therefore seems to be advisable not to wait for further results of investiga- 
tions and not to adhere to the low size-limit of the plaice accepted by the Council 
in 1913, but to try, as soon as possible, to carry through, by intermediation of the 
Council, a size-limit for plaice high enough to give an effective protection against the 
destruction of young, undersized plaice on those grounds of the North Saa, the 
Skagerak, and the Kattegat where plaice are most abundant. According to the in- 
vestigations at hand from the specialists in the various countries, such a protection 
could be obtained by an international size-limit of 25 — 26 cm. total length. 

Against the introduction of such a size-limit for plaice it might be urged that 
we do not need any size-limit for the present, since plaice is very abundant just now. 
This is assuredly right. The stock of plaice is undoubtedly so large that it is 
not necessary to protect it for the present. The size-limit should, however, be in- 
troduced as a provision for the future, and it seems possible to introduce it 
now with considerably less harm to fishing in shallow waters than formerly, when 
the stock of plaice was probably much smaller. 

An introduction of a size-limit in such large waters as the North Sea and ad- 



— 87— COUNCIL-MARCH 1920-APPENBIX 

jacent waters will, to some degree, have the character of an experiment. The effects 
of the measure introduced cannot fully be foreseen or reahzed. It is therefore of 
great importance to continue the study of the stock of plaice in the waters here 
dealt with and to report on the results as to the effect of the size-limit. Carefully 
collected statistics on the yield of plaice fishing in future, with information as to 
the size of the plaice landed, will probably enable us to see whether the size-limit 
introduced has had a favourable effect or not, and whether it should be raised or 
lowered. 

It should be added that even a size-limit, as here proposed, would not 
protect the stock of young plaice on the nursery grounds in a fully satisfactory 
manner. In our opinion, a quite satisfactory protection will not be attained, 
unless the chief nursery grounds are closed to steam trawlers, and a 
size-limit is imposed on all sorts of fishing vessels. 

In our opinion it would be worth while now to discuss the question whether 
it is not now the right time for experiments with closed areas, in connection 
with a size-limit. 

We think that the aforesaid measures would not only be in the immediate 
interest of the fisheries, but even for the very important question of a general under- 
standing of the influence of fishing on the stock of fish. It has now, for many years, 
been the object of the Council to solve these questions, but it has not been 
possible to arrive at absolute and definite results without varying the conditions 
under which fishing has taken place. We fear that, if the present situation should 
not be utilized, great difficulties may arise in future for an introduction of closed 
areas and an effective international size-limit. 

We therefore propose the said regulations to be adopted by the Council, and 
suggest that an energetic and systematic investigation as to their effect on the stock 
of fish should be carried out. This will undoubtedly be the best way for the realization 
of the Council's great object: to give the fisheries a firm basis for future regulations. 
It follows from this that it should be the Council's duty from time to time to re- 
port to the Governments concerned on the results obtained and the conclusions as 
to the maintenance or the modifications of the measures which future experience 
might involve. 



COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - APPENDIX 



Appendix IX. 

Brief summary regarding the Plaice question. 

(By J. M. Bottemanne). 



A report on the plaice, which report was prepared just before outbreak 
of the war, in July 1914, on behalf of the proposals of the Plaice Commission, was 
submitted to the Council by Mr. J. M. Bottemanne, Chief Inspector of Fisheries 
in the Netherlands, and delegated by the Dutch government to the meeting. In 
this report it was extensively pointed out that by fixing a size limit for plaice as 
proposed by the Plaice Commission the object in view would not be attained, but 
that the closing of certain areas of the North Sea would not be attained, but that 
the closing of certain areas of the North Sea would be necessary for it. The 
following is a brief summary of the results arrived at in the report. 

I. In the first chapter the conclusions of the Plaice Commission regarding 
protection of plaice in the North Sea and the Skagerrak are mentioned, and stati- 
stical tables are given of landings of plaice in the various North Sea countries 
from 1907 to 1912; they show that since the publication of Dr. Heincke's Avell 
known report on the plaice question (which report covers the period up to 1908), 
the catch, though as a whole not really decreasing, continues to exhibit signs of 
a gradual impoverishment of the fishing-grounds by the increase of the smallest 
kinds of plaice landed in Holland and England and by a decline in the total weight 
of plaice per day's absence. These tables induce the author to become fully con- 
vinced of the urgent character of protective measures. 

II. In the second chapter the proposals of the Plaice Commission are dis- 
cussed. It is shown that the proposed uniform size limits of 20 — 22 cm are really 
useless, that the minute loss for steam-trawlers (1,2 70 of the total return with a 
size limit of 22 cm) will not prevent them from visiting the young plaice grounds, 
so that they will continue fishing on these very grounds and simply "will throw 
overboard the undersized plaice, which practically will altogether die. The case 
is different for sailing craft, but such vessels being mostly confined to the vicinity 
of the shore, it is evident that they will scarcely have any profit of the proposed 
size limit, as the larger plaice, by moving into deeper and farther off waters, will 
gradually get out of their reach. So sailing vessels will not only be deprived of 
an eventual profit of the proposed size limit, but will also endure a not inconsider- 
able loss (about 5 "/o of their return) quite from the beginning of the experiment. 

III. The third chapter is devoted to the discussion of other measures as 
are proposed by the Plaice Commission. Much stress is laid upon the question of 
closed grounds where trawling should be altogether prohibited. The author 
remarks that Heincke himself, at several times, considers a reasonable size limit 



— 89 — COUNCIL-MARCH 1920-APPENDIX 

only effective if trawlers are induced by this limit to keep aloft from certain young 
plaice grounds, as fishing there would no longer be profitable to them. Heincke, 
however, though trying to arrive at an indirect closing of certain grounds by a 
size limit, seems not disposed to take the next step and to recommend the direct 
closing of these grounds, chiefly on behalf of the difficulties entailed by maintain- 
ing such a measure. But why, asks the present author, not take to the most effec- 
tive and definite closing of certain areas? The difficulties will presumably not 
be so numerous and insurmountable as is feared. Why will the various North Sea 
countries not be wilhng to place the needed craft like torpedoboats at disposal 
to carry out the guarding of any closed area, if they are convinced of the necess- 
ity to take such measure. Grounds which first of all would need to be closed for 
steam trawlers are the areas A2, A3 and A4, where young plaice abound. 

Practical considerations, however, prevent the applying of the measure 
with regard to sailing craft which are bound to coast waters, so that in this case 
a size limit is the only practicable measure. Moreover these vessels do not do so 
much harm to the young plaice stock as they keep their catch as much as possible 
alive by means of a well, and so are able to return the undersized plaice in good 
condition to the sea. 

Only if no general agreement about the direct closing of certain areas would 
be arrived at, the author is willing to comply with a size limit which, however, 
should be instituted at 26 cm for steam-trawlers and all other craft with mechan- 
ical power whilst for sailing craft only the proposals of the Plaice Commission 
(20 cm from October to March, 22 cm for the other months) can be agreed upon. 
Even if the direct closing of areas would be rejected the author proposes the clos- 
ing of Dutch territorial waters to all trawlfishing except to those sailing crafts 
which are provided with a well. 




12 



COUNCIL -MARCH 1920 -APPENDIX —90 — 

Appendix X. 

Report of the Editorial Committee 
regarding the Publications issued and cost of same during the 5 financial years 

from 1914—1919. 
(See last Report in Rapp. & Proc. Verb. XXI, page 52.) 

1914—1915. 

VIII. 25-31. Printing. Estimate Expenses 

25. Reports and Proceedings of Meetings, 

Vol. XXI for 1913—14 Kr. leoo.oo 1012.60 

26. Hydrographical Bulletin for 1913—14 - éooo.oo 3667.75 

(besides this amount was in last year already paid 
2000 Kr. on this Bulletin) 

27. Statistical Bulletin - 2000.00 0.00 

28. Occasional papers, 

Publ. de Circonstance Nr. 67, by Prof. Nansen - 2500.00 75.00 

29. Miscellaneous (circulars, programmes, etc.) - soo.oo 7.35 

30. Reports of Reporters: 

1. H. C. Redeke: Ueber den gegenwaertigen 
Stand unserer Kenntnis von den Rassen der 
wichtigsten Nutzfische. 34 pp. & II tables. 

(Rapp. Vol. XXII) Kr. 283.00 

2. A. C. Johansen: Fünfter Bericht über die 
Pleuronectiden in der Ostsee. 104 pp, 1 plate & 

20 flg. (Vol. XXII) - 1654.89 

3. Jons. Schmidt: Second Report on eel in- 
vestigations 1915. 26 pp, 7 tables & 4 fig. 

(Vol. XXIII) - 261.96 

4. H. Henking: Berichterstatter der Lachs- 
kommission für die Ostsee: Die Lachsfrage 
im Ostseegebiet. II. Tätigkeitsbericht, Teil 1. 
116 pp. with tables, figures, and VII plates 

(Vol. XXIII) - 1722.20 

Remaining book-binding of Prof. Ehrenbaum's 

last Report .• . - 65.75 5000.00 3987.80 

31 Distribution of Publications 2000.00 1580.15 

Kr. 17400.00 10330.65 

Balance . . . , 7069.35 

Kr. 17400.00 17400.00 
VII. 22. Plankton (Publications). 

Plankton Bulletin for 1912, Kr. 3442.32 -^ paid "/, 
1914 Kr. 3000.00 H- ^U 1914 Kr. 374.00 = Kr. 68.32, 
and further Kr. 193,13 Kr. 7000.00 261.45 



— 91 — COUNCIL - MARCH 1920 - APPENDIX 

1915 — 1916. 

'Vil. 18—24. Expenses in accordance with special Resolutions of the Council 

(see letter of ^«/^ 1916 from the General Secretary to the Delegates). 

(25). Printing. Estimate Expenses 

Reports of Reporters, 

Rapports Vol. XXII, title-page and book- 
binding etc 137.00 

Rapports Vol. XXIII, book-binding etc 105.60 

Rapports Vol. XXI II, extra copies, plates etc. 

(Salmon Report) 269.00 

Distribution of Publications 432.47 

. 944.07 
Balance...... 55.93 

. Kr. 100000 1000.00 
For Plankton Publications no payment during this year. 



1916—1917. 

"VII. 20—24. Printing. Estimate Expenses 

20. Annual Report, 

Rapports et Procès- Verbaux XXIV ...... Kr. looo.oo 215.50 

21. Hydrographical Bulletin, 

for 1914— 15 - 2500.00 1396.34 

22. Statistical Bulletin, 

Vol. VIII for 1911—12 . - 3400.00 3244.00 

23. Occasional Papers, 

Publ. de Cire. Nr. 70, edited by Dr. 
Ostenfeld, and published by the 

Bureau Kr. 600.00 

Miscellaneous - 82.75 awo.oo 682.75 

24. Distribution of Publications 1200.00 353.09 



Kr. 10500.00 5891.68 
Balance - 4608.32 



Kr. 10500.00 10500.00 



For Plankton Publications no payment during this year. 

' 12* 



COUNCIL- MARCH 1920- APPENDIX — 92 — 

1917 — 1918. 
VII. 20—25. Printing. 

20. Annual Report Kr. 

21. Hydrographical Bulletin 

22. Statistical Bulletin - 

23. Plankton Bulletin - 

24. Occasional Papers, 

Miscellaneous 

25. Distribution of Publications 

Balance 

K^ 



Estimate 


Expenses 


0.00 


0.00 


2500.00 


0.00 


2500.00 


0.00 


1500.00 


0.00 


2000.00 


11.25 


1300.00 


15.40 



26.65 
9673.35 



9700.00 



VII. 





1918 — 1919. 








20- 

20. 


-25. Printing. 

Annual Report, 

Rapports et Procès-Verbaux XXV 


Kr. 


Estimate 

0.00 


Expenses 
979.75 


21. 


Hydrographical Bulletin, 
Bulletin Atlantique (Charts 1699.00 + Prin- 
ting 2098.20) 




3800.00 


3797.20 


22. 


Statistical Bulletin, 
Vol. IX for 1913, revision of material and 










manuscript 


- 


2500.00 


400.00 


23. 


Plankton Bulletin 


' - 


1500.00 


0.00 


24. 


Occasional Papers, 

Publ. de Cire. Nr. 71, by H. H. Gran and 










TORB.J0RN GaARDER 


- 


2000.00 


638.00 


25. 


Distribution of Publications 


- 


1200.00 


319.69 




Kr. 


10500.00 


6134.64 




Balance 


Kr. 


10500.00 


4365.36 






10500.00 



ffnmÄP' Libra, 




Serials 




5 WHSE 03094 









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